Антрушина Г.Б., Афанасьева О.В., Морозова Н.Н. Лексикология английского
C) Slavic borrowings
Classification of borrowings according to the language from which they were
Classification of borrowings according to the degree of assimilation
Classification of borrowings according to the borrowed aspect
Borrowed words in the English vocabulary
Native words in the English vocabulary
Ш. The origin of English words
The morphemic analysis of the word
Morphological structure of words can be determined by special synchronic method known as the analysis into immediate and ultimate constituents(ICs and UCs).This method is based on the binary principle. It means that the analysis proceeds in stages, and at each stage the word or a part of it is segmented into immediate constituents. Such successive segmentation results in ultimate constituents that defy any further division, e.g.
a) denationalize (v):
1) denationalize > de/nationalize;
2) nationalize > national/ize;
3) national> nation/al.
Hence, the UCs of the word denationalize are de/nation/al/ize.
b) ungentlemanly (adj):
1) ungentlemanly > un/gentlemanly;
2) gentlemanly > gentleman/ly;
3) gentleman > gentle/man;
4) gentle > gent/le.
Hence, the UCs of the word ungentlemanly are un/gent/le/man/ly.
a) Romanic borrowings;
b) Germanic borrowings;
языка. – М., 1999.
2. Гороть Є.І., Бєлова С.В. Нариси з лексикології сучасної англійської мови. – Луцьк, 2008.
3. Дубенец Э. М. Современный английский язык. Лексикология. – Спб., 2004.
4. Rayevskaya N.N. English lexicology. – K., 1979.
5. Stockwell R., Minkova D. English words: History and structure.–N.Y., 2001.
Etymologically the vocabulary of the English language is far from being homogenous. It consists of two layers – the native stock of words and the borrowed stock of words. Numerically the borrowed stock of words is considerably larger than the native stock of words.
Native wordsare thewords of the English word-stock which belong to the following etymological layers of the English vocabulary:a) words of common Indo-European origin; b) words of Common Germanic word-stock; c) purely Anglo-Saxon words.
By the Indo-European element are meant words of roots common to all (or most) languages of the Indo-European group. The words of this group denote elementary concepts without which no human communication would be possible. The following groups can be identified.
1. Family relations: father, mother, brother, son, daughter.
2. Parts of the human body: foot, nose, lip, heart.
3. Animals: cow, swine, goose.
4. Plants: tree, birch, corn.
5. Time of day: day, night.
6. Heavenly bodies: sun, moon, star.
7. Numerous adjectives: red, new, glad, sad.
8. The numerals from one to a hundred.
9. Pronouns – personal (except “they” which is a Scandinavian borrowing) and demonstrative.
10. Numerous verbs: be, stand, sit, eat, know.
The Germanic element represents words of roots common to all or most Germanic languages. Some of the main groups of Germanic words are the same as in the Indo-European element.
1. Parts of the human body: head, hand, arm, finger, bone.
2. Animals: bear, fox, calf.
3. Plants: oak, fir, grass
4. Natural phenomena: rain, frost.
5. Seasons of the year: winter, spring, summer.
6. Landscape features: sea, land.
7. Human dwellings and furniture: house, room, bench.
8. Sea-going vessels: boat, ship.
9. Adjectives: green, blue, grey, white, small, thick, high, old, good.
10. Verbs: see, hear, speak, tell, say, answer, make, give, drink.
The English proper element is opposed to the first two groups. For not only it can be approximately dated, but these words have another distinctive feature: they are specifically English have no cognates in other languages whereas for Indo-European and Germanic words such cognates can always be found, as, for instance, for the following words of the Indo-European group. Star: Germ. – Stern, Lat. – Stella, Gr. – aster. Stand: Germ. – stehen, Lat. – stare, R. – стоять.
Here are some examples of English proper words: bird, boy, girl, lord, lady, woman, daisy, always.