A) Read the text and fill in the table below.
Controlling pollution depends on the efforts of the government, scientists, environmental organizations, and individuals. The government’s strategy is to control pollution. For this purpose the government should enforce lawswhich state that all plants and factories must make use of the up-to-date purificatoryequipment, filters, etc. Factories and plants violating environmental protection laws should be imposed heavy fines on. Such fines might encourage companies to invest in pollution control equipment or to develop less polluting methods of operation. Besides, it is not nice to have a factory that stinks in the middle of the residential neighbourhood. It is better to relocate it from the residential neighbourhood to the edge of the city if it is not possible to shut it down and build a park in its place.
As for agriculture, organic farming might come in useful. It is better that the farmers should use compost instead of huge quantities of pesticides and fertilizers. They should prevent the use of unwanted chemicals because, as a rule, these pesticides end up in our food which leads to health problems.
Scientists and engineers should look for technological solutions to prevent pollution. They have already invented cars that pollute less. For example, in some US farms farmers use electric minivans or a fuel in their tractors made from soybeans. But it is necessary to find more economical ways to use fuels and other raw materials. So it is high time electricity were generated from such renewable energy sources as the wind and the sun, causing little or no pollution.
Many electric companies have discovered that saving energy is better than making more energy. So people can save electricity by buying more efficient light bulbs and home appliances.
Another way we can prevent pollution isto recycle products. Recycling saves energy and raw materials. Throw-away products such as cans, plastic bags are all avoidable sources of domestic waste. About 80% of all our domestic waste can be recycled and reused. So it is necessary to set up recycling bins around cities, almost in every neighbourhood, so that people can drop off things for recycling. Then we could dramatically reduce the amount of rubbish and save natural resources at the same time.
Besides improving a recycling system, we need a daily rubbish collection. It is advisable that more dustmen should be employed so that they can dispose of rubbish daily. Then we wouldn’t have piles of rubbish on our streets that can easily cause the spread of disease. Furthermore, people can buy products that are environmentally friendly.
Finally, every person should be environmentally conscious and observe his moral obligations. People should learn as much as possible about how their actions affect the environment. We shouldn’t be indifferent to what is going on around. Each of us can, at least, have a talk to a representative of the company which ignores the law or get a TV station to run a story on it. Companies hate bad publicity.
To sum it up, if we do not change our philosophy of “live now, pay later” our children will bear the burden of our throw-away lifestyle.