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A) Match the words in column A (1-10) with their synonyms in column B (a-j)




Was

Were

Affected

Likely

Considered

Effect

Wished

Being

Necessary

If

Supposed

Point

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence using the given word. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words including the word given.

1) Recycling old newspapers seems pointless to me.

I can’t _____________ old newspapers.

2) It is said that swimming in this river is very harmful for your health because you can develop a high fever and a rash over your body.

Swimming ______________ very harmful for your health because you can develop a high fever and a rash over your body.

3) All fish died because the chemical plant discharged their effluents directly into the river.

Fish wouldn’t have died _________________ their effluents directly into the river.

4) The government must impose heavy fines on factories and plants that violate environmental protection laws.

It is _____________________ heavy fines on factories and plants that violate environmental protection laws.

5) They are launching a recycling project in their residential area.

A recycling project in their residential area ___________.

6) I regretted not taking part in aclean-up weekend.

I _______________________ in aclean-up weekend.

7) CFCs have badly affected the ozone layer.

CFCs have ....................................... the ozone layer.

8) Scientists say the warming of the Earth’s atmosphere has affected plant and animal life around the world.

The warming of the Earth’s atmosphere _____________ plant and animal life around the world.

9) The cloud could reduce rainfall over northwestern Pakistan, Afghanistan and western China by up to forty percent.

The cloud _______ rainfall over northwestern Pakistan, Afghanistan and western China by up to forty percent.

10) Changes in temperature in the air can also affect the reproduction of some reptiles and amphibians.

The reproduction of some reptiles and amphibians can _________ changes in temperature in the air.

11) Once I saw people dumping dirty water and rubbish into the river.

People _____________ dirty water and rubbish into the river.

12) A paper mill, a hospital and strongbox factory discharged waste into the river.

Waste ___________ a paper mill, a hospital and strongbox factory.

  A   B
1) have effect a) endanger
2) release b) aggravate
3) promote c) pay little attention to
4) disappear d) emit
5) threaten e) dwindle
6) trigger f) vanish
7) make worse g) eradicate
8) pay scant heed h) further
9) get rid of i) cause
10) decrease j) affect

b) Paraphrase the following sentences using the necessary word / phrase from the table above. Change its form if necessary.



1) Pollution has a damaging effect upon public health and ecosystems.

2) Factories and plants release a wide range of pollutants.

3) Detergents and artificial fertilizers promote overgrowth of bacteria and algae.

4) Scientists believe that some species will disappear because they cannot move to the new areas when their home climate gets too warm.

5) Even small temperature increases can threaten the production of turtles.

6) Many pollutants can trigger an asthma attack.

7) High concentration of ozone can make people’s health worse.

8) Most zoo personnel pay scant heed to the requirements of the animals they keep in captivity.

9) An alternative way to get rid of soil pollution is that the farmers should use compost instead of huge quantities of pesticides and fertilizers.

10) The territories where large predators can survive have decreased.

22. EXAM LINK. Work in pairs to discuss the problem of people’s being environmentally aware.

You should say:

What people can do to help the environment

Why they do it

How these things can help the environment

And express regret about people’s attitude to the environment.

Example:

I suppose I should begin by highlighting the fact that pollutionis the most serious problem humanity has ever faced. The contamination of the environment has increased dramatically over the last twenty years affecting adversely the quality of people’s life.

The first thing I should mention is that there is a widerange of activities people can do to help the environment.But I guess the most common would be that people can regularly save electricity by buying more efficient light bulbs and home appliances. Saving energy is known to be much better than making more energy. Besides, every day people can go to work by public transport or cycle instead of using a car thatproduces the majority of worldwide greenhouse gases. The key explanation might be their desire to reduce pollution in their home town. The less petrol is burnt, the better the air quality will be. Another point which I could add is that environmentalists can organize clean-up weekends. The key motivation is to make the city cleaner. City dwellers collect rubbishwithin the inner city area and sort it out for recycling. The entire community benefits from it as the city becomes much cleaner and more attractive. As well as that, volunteers will organize a service in their residential area to collect waste paper, glass and plastic for a local company to recycle it. Local residents take recycable rubbish to collection points at various locations around the city. In fact, they do it daily and it greatly contributes to the reduction of the amount of non-biodegradable waste being dumped at landfill sites. If people stop discarding things like glass and plastic, the land could be used as farmland in the future. Moreover, by recyclingthings made of glass, aluminium, plastic and paper people preserve raw resources and save energy. Another form of environmental activity worth mentioningcould be people’s supporting different conservation programmes. Volunteers become members of environmental organizations, for example, IUCN, and start putting conservation into actionby writing detailed information about various species, writing blogs, etc. They do it on a regular basis because it is very important that people should be made aware of species that are struggling to survive or habitats that are being destroyed. And finally, there are things like green concerts, tree planting, and essay and poster competitions at schools.

Unfortunately, I guess I could remark on the fact that environmental campaigns are notheld on a regular basis, much attention is usually paid on the Environmental Dayonly. As well as that, some people, having the concept “live now, pay later”, are quite environmentally unconscious. I wish they didn’t throw away cans, plastic bags and other things which could be recycled. They litter in the street though there are rubbish bins around the city. After having had a picnic they dump garbage in the river or on the land. They are quite indifferent to what is going on. They live as if they didn’t notice that almost all factories and plants situated in their home town violate environmental protection laws. Instead of appealing to the Mayor of the city and all city residents to do something about the pollution or getting a TV station run a story about the environmental problem, they just keep silence. So people must become aware of the fact that the protection of the environment is everyone’s responsibilityand they shouldn’t expect the government to provide all the solutions.





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