Focus on Grammar
Infinitive / The –ing form
Verb + ing
1. Here are some verbs that are followed by –ing:
| stop delay fancy consider admit enjoy
finish postpone imagine avoid deny suggest
miss risk involve practise mind dislike
give up (=stop) think
put off (= postpone)
carry on / go on (= do something repeatedly)
Look at these examples: I enjoydancing (not ”I enjoy to dance”).
Would you mind closing the door? (not ”mind to close”).
He suggested going to the cinema (not ”suggested to go”).
Paula has given up smoking.
Don’t keep interrupting me while I’m speaking.
Are you thinking of buying a car?
Verb + to
| offer decide hope deserve attempt promise
agree plan aim afford manage threaten
refuse arrange learn forget fail
Study the examples:
We decided not to get out because of the weather.
I promised not to be late.
| want ask help would prefer would love
expect beg would like would hate
These verbs are followed by to…(infinitive). The structure can be:
Verb + to or verb + object + to
We expected to be late. We expected Tom to be late.
Would you like to go now? Would you like me to go now?
4. There are two possible structures after these verbs. Compare:
Verb + –ing (without an object) verb + object + to
| advice recommend encourage allow permit forbid
She doesn’t allow smoking. She doesn’t allow us to smoke
in the house. in the house.
5. These verbs can be followed by –ing or to with little or no difference in meaning.
| begin start intend continue
So you can say:
John intends buying a house. John intends to buy a house.
Example: 1. A: Is this problem too difficult for you to solve?
B: Yes, it`s too difficult. I can`t solve it.
2. book/boring/to read.
3. school/uniform/expensive/to buy.
4. the Eleven Plus/easy/to pass.
5. boarding school/comfortable/to live.
6. dish in a school canteen/expensive/to buy.
7. exercise/difficult/to do.
8. school bag/heavy/to carry.
9. lecture/difficult/to listen to.
10. evening school/expensive/to pay.
2. What do Kharkiv applicants want to know at the Education Information Center?
Example: 1. ‘What are the oldest universities in Ukraine?’
Kharkiv applicants want to know what the oldest universities in Ukraine are.
2. ‘How can we find out about Kharkiv National Pedagogical University?’
3. ‘Is the tuition fee-paying or free in Kharkiv National Universtity?’
4. ‘Which way is the faculty of foreign languages of Kharkiv National Pedagogical University?’
5. ‘When does the academic year start?’
6. ‘Is there the Institute of Postgraduate Education in Kharkiv National Pedagogical University?’
7. ‘When does the first term start?’
8. ‘Which way is Kharkiv Medical University?’
9. ‘When does the vacation start?’
10. ‘How can we find out about the degrees which are given by Kharkiv universities?’
3. Choose the most appropriate verb from the box. Remember they all follow the pattern verb+infinitive.
| offer agree order refuse decide promise fail
Example: 1. John`s parents decided to spend more time with their child.
2. The school administration … to set up tutorials.
3. The pupils like this teacher as he … to increase the amount of homework.
4. The pupils had enough time for independent work but … to pass their exams.
5. The teacher … the pupils who behave especially badly in class to go to the headteacher`s office.
6. The regional education authorities … to give grants to some schools of the city.
7. The teachers … the pupils to provide sick notes when they are absent.
8. The school administration … to improve library facilities and organize a Parent Teacher Association.
9. The district education authorities … to appoint some extra staff.
10. The school administration … to install more computers.
4. Write sentences using the structure I prefer to do something rather than do something else.
Example: 1. get a taxi/walk home. – I prefer to get a taxi rather than walk home.
2. write an essay/do math calculations.
3. read/study for tests.
4. study Japanese/do a research on food in Japan.
5. have one`s own room/share a room with a sister.
6. spend time with the parents/work with a computer.
7. do exercises/study for exams.
8. make up a dialogue/retell the text.
9. go to a private school/go to a state school.
10. wear school uniform/wear casual clothes.