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Применение, использование

Экзамен

to apply — применять, использовать -^ application

to educate — education; to adopt — adoption; to graduate —

graduation; to specialize — specialization; to organize — organization;

существительное + al = прилагательное

education — образование -> educational образовательный

industry — industrial; profession — professional; person —

personal;

существительное + ic = прилагательное

science — наука -> scientific научный;

basis основа ~> basic основной

прилагательное + /у = наречие

high высокий -> highly — высоко

quick — quickly; usual — usually.

Упражшение 10.Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.

qualification, qualified ['kwolifaid], speciality [,speji 'aeliti],

specialist, special, specialize, engineer [,enct5i'ni9], serious

['sieries], adoption, style [stail], method ['meGed], distance, system,

foundation, satellite ['saetelait], course [ko:s], instruction,

mathematics [,mae9i'maetiks], physics ['fiziks], chemistry

['kemistri], history, economics, to concentrate ['konsentreit],

bachelor ['bae^ala], sport center, basic, exchange.

Упражнение 11.Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих

слов.

high [hai], higher education, highly-qualified, important

[im'po:t9nt], provide [pra'vaid], development [diVelepment],

process ['preuses], progress ['preugres], steadily ['stedili],

enough [I'nAf], through [9ru:], thorough ['влгэ], quality

['kwoliti], natural ['nae^rel], science ['saiens], scientist

['saientist], require [ri'kwaie], curricula [ka'rikjule], foreign

['form], major ['meidse], future ['fju:^9], further ['fe:69], research

[ri'se:^], enterprise ['entepraiz], know [neu], knowledge

['nolidj], graduate ['graedjueit].

СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ

as conj — как; по мере того

как, когда; так как,

поскольку

as well— так же

affectV — влиять, воздействовать

на

becomev — становиться

considerv — считать, рассматривать,

учитывать

developv — развивать, разрабатывать;

преображать

developmentп — развитие,

разработка

enablev — давать возможность

ensurev — обеспечивать,

гарантировать

especiallyadv — особенно

furtherа ~ дальнейший

improvev — улучшать, совершенствовать

mean(meant) v — значить, означать

meansп — средство, способ

numberп — число, количество

а number of— ряд, несколько

preparev — готовить, подготавливать

provideV — снабжать, обеспечивать

receivev — получать

remainv ~ оставаться

qualityп — качество

thoroughа — основательный,

доскональный, тщательный

usuallyadv — обычно



to play а part— играть роль

to take into consideration— принимать

во внимание, в расчет

at present— в настоящее время

Text 1А

Higher Education in Russia

Higher education plays an important part in the life of any

country as it provides the country with highly-qualified specialists

for future development and progress. It trains people to become

teachers, engineers, doctors and other professional workers.

In all the industrial countries standards of living are steadily

changing; this means that the kind of education, which was good

enough thirty years ago, is not necessarily good for them today. The

serious need to find ways and means of ensuring continuous and

thorough adoption of the universities to contemporary needs in our

rapidly changing world is widely recognized. And this means that

styles of teaching, quality of learning materials^ and organization

of the university itself have to be continuously brought up to date^

and improved.

Besides, knowledge and information which comes through the

mass media must also be taken into consideration. This information

explosion^ has affected every field of study, especially, of

course, in the natural and applied sciences and in all other sciences

as well. The increase of information requires new methods and new

approaches to students' training and instruction"*.

At present a new system of education is introduced in this

country — a distance education system. This computer system of

learning helps working professionals to continue their education

while remaining at their jobs. This system enables people to get

knowledge and a good foundation in the sciences basic to his or her

field of study. Distance learning has developed over years^ from

satellite video courses to modern videoconferencing through personal

computers.

The academic year usually lasts 9 months and is divided into

two terms (semesters). The first- and second-year students obtain

thorough instructions in the fundamental sciences of mathematics,

physics, chemistry and drawing as well as computer engineering

and a number of others. The curricula are enriched and broadened^

by instructions in such subjects as foreign languages, history and

economics.

At the third year students get more advanced knowledge and

begin to concentrate on their special interests, so to say, their «major

» subject and take many courses in this subject. Specialized study

and courses will help students to become specialists and prepare

them for their future work.

After four years students will get a bachelor's degree. Then the

students may go on with their studies and in a year or two of further

study and research get a master's degree. After graduating from the

university they may go on with their study and research and may

get a still higher degree.

About 75 percent of students receive state grants and 15 percent

are sponsored by enterprises. Universities have their own students'

hostels and some of them have large and excellent sport centers.

Education is a process through which culture is preserved,

knowledge and skills are developed, values are formed, and information

is exchanged.

Education is the way to success.

Notes to the Text

1. learning materials — учебный материал

2. to bring up to date ~ довести до современных требований

3. information explosion — информационный взрыв

4. training and instruction -- подготовка и обучение

5. over years — за многие годы

6. curricula are enriched and broadened — программы (курсы

обучения) обогащаются и расширяются

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 12.Просмотрите упражнение 7 и текст 1А, ответьте на вопросы.

1. When does the academic year begin in this country? 2. How

many exams did you pass to enter the University? 3. Do you pay for

your education? 4. Do students get grants? 5. What subjects do students

study in the first year? 6. Which subject is the most interesting

for you? 7. Is there a sport center in your University? 8. What

degree do students get after four years of study? 9. What degree can

a student get after two years of further study and research? 10. What

new education system is introduced in this country? 11. What specialities

do people get after graduating from a university? 12. Why

is higher education important in the life of every country?

Упражнение 13.Сравните предложения в действительном и страдательном

залоге, переведите их.

1. Students asked the lecturer many questions. The lecturer was

asked many questions. 2. The monitor told the first-year students

to come to the laboratory. The first-year students were told to come

to the laboratory. 3. Usually a lab assistant shows the equipment to

the students. Usually the equipment is shown to the students by a

lab assistant. Usually students are shown the equipment by a lab assistant.

4. Students watched the process with great attention. The

process was watched with great attention. 5. Tomorrow our teacher

will give us a new task. A new task will be given tomorrow. We shall

be given a new task tomorrow. 6. Practice accompanies theory.

Theory is accompanied by practice. 7. He asked me to bring a dictionary.

He was asked to bring a dictionary. 8. The teacher told the

students to sign their drawings. The students were told to sign their

drawings. 9. The dean will send the students to a big plant in summer.

The students will be sent to a big plant in summer. 10. He

taught us to use the lab equipment. We were taught to use the lab

equipment.

Упражнение 14. A.Переделайте предложения из действительного в страдательный

залог.

1. You Open the door. 2. We asked questions. 3. He will finish

his project next week. 4. He can do this exercise. 5. They invited me

to their conference. 6. I saw a new film. 7. My sister writes letters

regularly. 8. Universities develop new methods of students' training.

9. After graduating from the University the students may get a

still higher degree. 10. The study of foreign languages, history and

economics must improve the curricula of technological universities.

B. Переведите предложения в страдательном залоге, дайте варианты, где

возможно.

1. Mathematics, strength of materials, mechanics, elements of

machines as well as engineering physics are studied at technological

institutes. 2. The development of science is closely connected

with the development of higher education. 3. Students are provided

with hostels, well-equipped laboratories and libraries. 4. Any country

must be provided with good specialists in all branches of science

and technology for its further development. 5. Large sums of

money are spent by the state to train highly-qualified engineers. 6.

Much attention must be paid to improve the standards of higher

education. 7. Students of technological institutes are trained to

analyse various facts and theories. 8. The scientific and technological

progress of a country is determined by the qualification of

specialists. 9.Some institutes of technology are reorganized into

universities. lO.The country must be provided with specialists capable

of working with the technology of tomorrow effectively.

Упражнение 15.Найдите Participle I и Participle II, переведите предложения.

1. The students studying at the institutes passed entrance exams

in summer. 2. The subjects studied in the first two years are very

important for future engineers. 3. The lecture delivered by our dean

was on new methods of technology. 4. The man delivering this

lecture is our professor on mathematics. 5. An article discussing

the new system of school education appeared in all newspapers.

6. The results of the experiments discussed yesterday will be published.

7. The attention paid to the study of fundamental subjects is

great. 8. Students interested in computer engineering enter technological

institutes. 9. The number of specialists connected with new

branches of science and engineering is increased every year.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ

Упражнение 16.Определите по суффиксу, к какой части речи относятся

следующие слова:

administration, gradual, electric, intensively, practical, dramatic,

integral, specific, operation, illumination, naturally, identical,

organization, originally, arctic, technical, acceleration.

Упражнение 17.Найдите в тексте lA слова с суффиксами -Г/ол, -А/, -/С,

-/у и переведите их.

Упражнение 18.Найдите глагольные формы, которые могут быть сказуемыми

в предложении:

Student, many, will be passed, doing, technical, has, reports,

studied, interesting, connected, are, were done, large, is, tasks, developed,

is read, coming, texts, badly, giving, had, was made possible,

are given, forms, necessary, teaches, basis, was, done.

Упражнение 19.Найдите:

а) антонимы (слова, противоположные по значению)

to begin, to enter, young, large, to open, to take, quick, much,

to graduate from, many, long, slow, little, to finish, old, small, to

close, to give, few, short;

б) синонимы (слова, совпадающие по значению)

new, large, many, to begin, to take, to speak, to enter, to build,

to do, to get, modern, big, to start, much, to make, main, to talk, to

construct, to come into, major.

Упражнение 20.Составьте предложения из следующих слов в соответствии

с порядком слов в английском предложении.

1. has, buildings, our, several, institute. 2. subjects, students,

many, the first-year, study. 3. the third-year, had, last, students,

training, industrial, summer. 4. carry out, students, practical,

work, in, laboratories, well-equipped. 5. problems, many, scien-

tists, important, solve, our. 6. texts, difficult, Petrov, technical,

translated. 7. his, will, the teacher, translation, correct. 8. next,

dean, a lecture, deliver, our, week, will. 9. students, more, institutes,

last, entered, a million, than, year.

Упражнение 21.Заполните пропуски глаголами to be, to have в соответствующем

времени.

1. Moscow ... the capital of Russia. 2. There ... many institutes

in Moscow. 3. The oldest of them ... Moscow University. 4. Our

University ... one of the oldest technological institutes in this country.

5. It... founded in 1830. 6. It... old and new buildings. 7. There

... laboratories, workshops and libraries in our institute. 8. Every

faculty ... its own computer center. 9. Our library ... a great number

of books and magazines in all branches of science and technology.

10. Last year we ... at school, next year we ... the second year students.

11. We ... industrial training in the third year.

Упражнение 22.Выберите правильную форму.

1. Entrance exams (held, are held) in summer. 2. More than 20

new technological institutes (were founded, founded) in the last

decade. 3. Basic engineering subjects (studied, are studied) in the

first and second years. 4. Highly-qualified specialists (trained, are

trained) at higher schools. 5. More than a million students

(enroled, were enroled) to the institutes and universities of this

country last summer. 6. The training of specialists (will be improved,

will improve) as a result of restructuring in the next few

years.

Упражнение 23.Напишите ответы на вопросы по следующему образцу:

Are there two presidents in the United States? No, there are not. There are not two

presidents in the United States. There is one president in the United States.

1. Are there thirteen months in a year? 2. Are there eight days

in a week? 3. Are there fifty minutes in a hour? 4. Are there seventy

seconds in a minute? 5. Are there forty days in a month? 6.

Are there thirty days in February? 7. Are there thirty-two days in

January? 8. Are there five seasons in a year?

Упражнение 24.Выберите соответствующие местоимения.

А. 1. (We, us) all went with (their, them) to the dean's office.

2. My friend came to see (I, me) last night. 3. Victor gave Peter and

(I, me) a book and we went to the reading-room with (he, him) and

his friend. 4. He told Mary and (me, I) to go with (he, him) and his

sister. 5. They know all about my friend and (I, me). 6. I came to

the Institute with Michael and (her, she). 7. An old man asked (we,

us) to come and see (him, his). 8. Go with David and (her, she) to

visit (they, them).

B. They invited me to (them, their) party. 2. He could not answer

(his, her) teacher. 3. They were (your, you) former students.

4. You are (us, our) colleagues. 5. This is (my, me) brother. 6. Ann

went to (his, her) room and put on (his, her) new dress because she

was going to a dance given by (his, her) company. 7. Where is the

dictionary? (He, it) is in (his, its) place on the table.

C. 1. Your dictionary is new, but (my, mine) is not. 2. She says

that this dictionary is (her, hers). 3. You can do it without my help,

but not without (theirs, their). 4. Will you help me to sort out the

things? I cannot tell which are (your, yours) and which are (our,

ours). 5. He is an old friend of (me, mine). 6. Do you know your

lesson today? He does not know (him, his). 7. This is your notebook

and this is his, but where is (her, hers)?

Упражнение 25.Выразите согласие или несогласие.

1. Do you Study at school? 2. Are you a student of the third

year? 3. Do you study many subjects? 4. Did you pass your entrance

exams well? 5. Do you live in Moscow? 6. Do you live far

from the institute? 7. Is English your favourite subject? 8. Will you

go to the concert tomorrow? 9. Were your books taken from the library?

10. Do you live in the hostel?

Упражнение 26.Заполните пропуски предлогами //i, at, on, to, into, under,

near.

1. We live ... Moscow. 2.1 get up ... seven o'clock and leave ...

eight. 3.1 usually walk ... the institute. 4. There are three rooms ...

our flat. 5. There is a picture ... the wall and a small table ... the

picture. 6. He comes ... the room and sits down ... the chair ... the

table. 7. ... the evening we watch TV or read books. 8. We do not

study... Sunday. 9. There are several newspapers ... the table. 10. The

accident happened ... the bridge.

Упражнение 27.Дайте недостающие формы глагола, запомните их.

got, beginning, took, meant, say, becoming, found, brought,

going, come

Упражнение 28.Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря.

As you know higher education trains highly-qualified specialists

for further development and progress of the country. The students

making good progress get state grants. The course of study at the

universities lasts about six years. The students take three or four

years of general engineering and fundamental courses, then one or

two years of specialized training in some fields of science and technology.

In the first and second years a good foundation for professional

knowledge is provided. At present there are many modern

laboratories at institutes. Most higher schools have their own computer

centers. This means that the state must spend a lot of money

to improve higher education.

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1.Answer the questions.

1. How old are you now? 2. Where were you born? 3. What city

did you come from? 4. Where did you go to school? 5. What foreign

language did you study at school? 6. How long did you study at

school? 7. Why did you enter this institute? 8. What are your favourite

subjects at the institute? 9. Where do you live? 10. Do you

live with your family? 11. How do you usually spend your Saturday

and Sunday? 12. What did you do last weekend? 13. What are

you going to do next weekend? 14. What is your favourite sport?

15. What is your hobby? 16. Where do you usually spend your

summer vacation? 17. When do you usually get up in the morning?

18. At what time do you usually leave home? 19. How do you

usually get to the institute?

Exercise 2.Read and learn.

Ted's instructor: Hello Ted. Vm glad I saw you before lectures. Did

you know about the change in the examination

timetable?

Change?

Yes. The last day of examinations for your group

will be January 23rd not January 21st.

Is that definite (определенно, точно)? We were

told they'd be on January 22nd.

There can be no changes now. It's definitely January

23rd.

That's great. Fm going to London on holiday on

January 24th.

Have you finished your assignment (домашнее

задание) yet?

Ted:

Ted's

Ted:

ins.:

Ted's ins.:

Ted:

Ted's ins.:

Ted: I'm nearly there. I think I'll give it to you on Tuesday.

Ted's ins.: That's good. I can't let you have another extension

(отсрочка).

Ted: I was really grateful for the extra time you gave me. That





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  1. Exercise 1. Вставьте предлоги и переведите предложения.
  2. I Переведите на русский язык.
  3. I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
  4. I. Прочитайте слова, соблюдая правила чтения гласных букв и буквосочетаний.
  5. I. Прочтите и устно переведите следующий текст. Переведите письменно 2, 3 и 6-й абзацы.
  6. I. Прочтите и устно переведите текст. Переведите письменно 1, 2, 6 и 7-й абзацы.
  7. II. Прочитайте слова, соблюдая правила чтения гласных в открытом слоге (I тип чтения).
  8. IV. Прочтите и письменно переведите 3 и 4-й абзацы текста.
  9. VI. A. Прочитайте тексты.
  10. VII. Перепишите предложения. Вставьте вместо точек одну из форм относительных местоимений и переведите эти предложения.
  11. VII. Прочитайте тексты и дополните предложения.
  12. VII. Прочтите и устно переведите следующий текст.




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