to apply — применять, использовать -^ application —
to educate — education; to adopt — adoption; to graduate —
graduation; to specialize — specialization; to organize — organization;
существительное + al = прилагательное
education — образование -> educational — образовательный
industry — industrial; profession — professional; person —
существительное + ic = прилагательное
science — наука -> scientific — научный;
basis — основа ~> basic — основной
прилагательное + /у = наречие
high — высокий -> highly — высоко
quick — quickly; usual — usually.
Упражшение 10.Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
qualification, qualified ['kwolifaid], speciality [,speji 'aeliti],
specialist, special, specialize, engineer [,enct5i'ni9], serious
['sieries], adoption, style [stail], method ['meGed], distance, system,
foundation, satellite ['saetelait], course [ko:s], instruction,
mathematics [,mae9i'maetiks], physics ['fiziks], chemistry
['kemistri], history, economics, to concentrate ['konsentreit],
bachelor ['bae^ala], sport center, basic, exchange.
Упражнение 11.Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих
high [hai], higher education, highly-qualified, important
[im'po:t9nt], provide [pra'vaid], development [diVelepment],
process ['preuses], progress ['preugres], steadily ['stedili],
enough [I'nAf], through [9ru:], thorough ['влгэ], quality
['kwoliti], natural ['nae^rel], science ['saiens], scientist
['saientist], require [ri'kwaie], curricula [ka'rikjule], foreign
['form], major ['meidse], future ['fju:^9], further ['fe:69], research
[ri'se:^], enterprise ['entepraiz], know [neu], knowledge
['nolidj], graduate ['graedjueit].
СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ
as conj — как; по мере того
как, когда; так как,
as well— так же
affectV — влиять, воздействовать
becomev — становиться
considerv — считать, рассматривать,
developv — развивать, разрабатывать;
developmentп — развитие,
enablev — давать возможность
ensurev — обеспечивать,
especiallyadv — особенно
furtherа ~ дальнейший
improvev — улучшать, совершенствовать
mean(meant) v — значить, означать
meansп — средство, способ
numberп — число, количество
а number of— ряд, несколько
preparev — готовить, подготавливать
provideV — снабжать, обеспечивать
receivev — получать
remainv ~ оставаться
qualityп — качество
thoroughа — основательный,
usuallyadv — обычно
to play а part— играть роль
to take into consideration— принимать
во внимание, в расчет
at present— в настоящее время
Higher Education in Russia
Higher education plays an important part in the life of any
country as it provides the country with highly-qualified specialists
for future development and progress. It trains people to become
teachers, engineers, doctors and other professional workers.
In all the industrial countries standards of living are steadily
changing; this means that the kind of education, which was good
enough thirty years ago, is not necessarily good for them today. The
serious need to find ways and means of ensuring continuous and
thorough adoption of the universities to contemporary needs in our
rapidly changing world is widely recognized. And this means that
styles of teaching, quality of learning materials^ and organization
of the university itself have to be continuously brought up to date^
Besides, knowledge and information which comes through the
mass media must also be taken into consideration. This information
explosion^ has affected every field of study, especially, of
course, in the natural and applied sciences and in all other sciences
as well. The increase of information requires new methods and new
approaches to students' training and instruction"*.
At present a new system of education is introduced in this
country — a distance education system. This computer system of
learning helps working professionals to continue their education
while remaining at their jobs. This system enables people to get
knowledge and a good foundation in the sciences basic to his or her
field of study. Distance learning has developed over years^ from
satellite video courses to modern videoconferencing through personal
The academic year usually lasts 9 months and is divided into
two terms (semesters). The first- and second-year students obtain
thorough instructions in the fundamental sciences of mathematics,
physics, chemistry and drawing as well as computer engineering
and a number of others. The curricula are enriched and broadened^
by instructions in such subjects as foreign languages, history and
At the third year students get more advanced knowledge and
begin to concentrate on their special interests, so to say, their «major
» subject and take many courses in this subject. Specialized study
and courses will help students to become specialists and prepare
them for their future work.
After four years students will get a bachelor's degree. Then the
students may go on with their studies and in a year or two of further
study and research get a master's degree. After graduating from the
university they may go on with their study and research and may
get a still higher degree.
About 75 percent of students receive state grants and 15 percent
are sponsored by enterprises. Universities have their own students'
hostels and some of them have large and excellent sport centers.
Education is a process through which culture is preserved,
knowledge and skills are developed, values are formed, and information
Education is the way to success.
Notes to the Text
1. learning materials — учебный материал
2. to bring up to date ~ довести до современных требований
3. information explosion — информационный взрыв
4. training and instruction -- подготовка и обучение
5. over years — за многие годы
6. curricula are enriched and broadened — программы (курсы
обучения) обогащаются и расширяются
Упражнение 12.Просмотрите упражнение 7 и текст 1А, ответьте на вопросы.
1. When does the academic year begin in this country? 2. How
many exams did you pass to enter the University? 3. Do you pay for
your education? 4. Do students get grants? 5. What subjects do students
study in the first year? 6. Which subject is the most interesting
for you? 7. Is there a sport center in your University? 8. What
degree do students get after four years of study? 9. What degree can
a student get after two years of further study and research? 10. What
new education system is introduced in this country? 11. What specialities
do people get after graduating from a university? 12. Why
is higher education important in the life of every country?
Упражнение 13.Сравните предложения в действительном и страдательном
залоге, переведите их.
1. Students asked the lecturer many questions. The lecturer was
asked many questions. 2. The monitor told the first-year students
to come to the laboratory. The first-year students were told to come
to the laboratory. 3. Usually a lab assistant shows the equipment to
the students. Usually the equipment is shown to the students by a
lab assistant. Usually students are shown the equipment by a lab assistant.
4. Students watched the process with great attention. The
process was watched with great attention. 5. Tomorrow our teacher
will give us a new task. A new task will be given tomorrow. We shall
be given a new task tomorrow. 6. Practice accompanies theory.
Theory is accompanied by practice. 7. He asked me to bring a dictionary.
He was asked to bring a dictionary. 8. The teacher told the
students to sign their drawings. The students were told to sign their
drawings. 9. The dean will send the students to a big plant in summer.
The students will be sent to a big plant in summer. 10. He
taught us to use the lab equipment. We were taught to use the lab
Упражнение 14. A.Переделайте предложения из действительного в страдательный
1. You Open the door. 2. We asked questions. 3. He will finish
his project next week. 4. He can do this exercise. 5. They invited me
to their conference. 6. I saw a new film. 7. My sister writes letters
regularly. 8. Universities develop new methods of students' training.
9. After graduating from the University the students may get a
still higher degree. 10. The study of foreign languages, history and
economics must improve the curricula of technological universities.
B. Переведите предложения в страдательном залоге, дайте варианты, где
1. Mathematics, strength of materials, mechanics, elements of
machines as well as engineering physics are studied at technological
institutes. 2. The development of science is closely connected
with the development of higher education. 3. Students are provided
with hostels, well-equipped laboratories and libraries. 4. Any country
must be provided with good specialists in all branches of science
and technology for its further development. 5. Large sums of
money are spent by the state to train highly-qualified engineers. 6.
Much attention must be paid to improve the standards of higher
education. 7. Students of technological institutes are trained to
analyse various facts and theories. 8. The scientific and technological
progress of a country is determined by the qualification of
specialists. 9.Some institutes of technology are reorganized into
universities. lO.The country must be provided with specialists capable
of working with the technology of tomorrow effectively.
Упражнение 15.Найдите Participle I и Participle II, переведите предложения.
1. The students studying at the institutes passed entrance exams
in summer. 2. The subjects studied in the first two years are very
important for future engineers. 3. The lecture delivered by our dean
was on new methods of technology. 4. The man delivering this
lecture is our professor on mathematics. 5. An article discussing
the new system of school education appeared in all newspapers.
6. The results of the experiments discussed yesterday will be published.
7. The attention paid to the study of fundamental subjects is
great. 8. Students interested in computer engineering enter technological
institutes. 9. The number of specialists connected with new
branches of science and engineering is increased every year.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ
Упражнение 16.Определите по суффиксу, к какой части речи относятся
administration, gradual, electric, intensively, practical, dramatic,
integral, specific, operation, illumination, naturally, identical,
organization, originally, arctic, technical, acceleration.
Упражнение 17.Найдите в тексте lA слова с суффиксами -Г/ол, -А/, -/С,
-/у и переведите их.
Упражнение 18.Найдите глагольные формы, которые могут быть сказуемыми
Student, many, will be passed, doing, technical, has, reports,
studied, interesting, connected, are, were done, large, is, tasks, developed,
is read, coming, texts, badly, giving, had, was made possible,
are given, forms, necessary, teaches, basis, was, done.
а) антонимы (слова, противоположные по значению)
to begin, to enter, young, large, to open, to take, quick, much,
to graduate from, many, long, slow, little, to finish, old, small, to
close, to give, few, short;
б) синонимы (слова, совпадающие по значению)
new, large, many, to begin, to take, to speak, to enter, to build,
to do, to get, modern, big, to start, much, to make, main, to talk, to
construct, to come into, major.
Упражнение 20.Составьте предложения из следующих слов в соответствии
с порядком слов в английском предложении.
1. has, buildings, our, several, institute. 2. subjects, students,
many, the first-year, study. 3. the third-year, had, last, students,
training, industrial, summer. 4. carry out, students, practical,
work, in, laboratories, well-equipped. 5. problems, many, scien-
tists, important, solve, our. 6. texts, difficult, Petrov, technical,
translated. 7. his, will, the teacher, translation, correct. 8. next,
dean, a lecture, deliver, our, week, will. 9. students, more, institutes,
last, entered, a million, than, year.
Упражнение 21.Заполните пропуски глаголами to be, to have в соответствующем
1. Moscow ... the capital of Russia. 2. There ... many institutes
in Moscow. 3. The oldest of them ... Moscow University. 4. Our
University ... one of the oldest technological institutes in this country.
5. It... founded in 1830. 6. It... old and new buildings. 7. There
... laboratories, workshops and libraries in our institute. 8. Every
faculty ... its own computer center. 9. Our library ... a great number
of books and magazines in all branches of science and technology.
10. Last year we ... at school, next year we ... the second year students.
11. We ... industrial training in the third year.
Упражнение 22.Выберите правильную форму.
1. Entrance exams (held, are held) in summer. 2. More than 20
new technological institutes (were founded, founded) in the last
decade. 3. Basic engineering subjects (studied, are studied) in the
first and second years. 4. Highly-qualified specialists (trained, are
trained) at higher schools. 5. More than a million students
(enroled, were enroled) to the institutes and universities of this
country last summer. 6. The training of specialists (will be improved,
will improve) as a result of restructuring in the next few
Упражнение 23.Напишите ответы на вопросы по следующему образцу:
Are there two presidents in the United States? No, there are not. There are not two
presidents in the United States. There is one president in the United States.
1. Are there thirteen months in a year? 2. Are there eight days
in a week? 3. Are there fifty minutes in a hour? 4. Are there seventy
seconds in a minute? 5. Are there forty days in a month? 6.
Are there thirty days in February? 7. Are there thirty-two days in
January? 8. Are there five seasons in a year?
Упражнение 24.Выберите соответствующие местоимения.
А. 1. (We, us) all went with (their, them) to the dean's office.
2. My friend came to see (I, me) last night. 3. Victor gave Peter and
(I, me) a book and we went to the reading-room with (he, him) and
his friend. 4. He told Mary and (me, I) to go with (he, him) and his
sister. 5. They know all about my friend and (I, me). 6. I came to
the Institute with Michael and (her, she). 7. An old man asked (we,
us) to come and see (him, his). 8. Go with David and (her, she) to
visit (they, them).
B. They invited me to (them, their) party. 2. He could not answer
(his, her) teacher. 3. They were (your, you) former students.
4. You are (us, our) colleagues. 5. This is (my, me) brother. 6. Ann
went to (his, her) room and put on (his, her) new dress because she
was going to a dance given by (his, her) company. 7. Where is the
dictionary? (He, it) is in (his, its) place on the table.
C. 1. Your dictionary is new, but (my, mine) is not. 2. She says
that this dictionary is (her, hers). 3. You can do it without my help,
but not without (theirs, their). 4. Will you help me to sort out the
things? I cannot tell which are (your, yours) and which are (our,
ours). 5. He is an old friend of (me, mine). 6. Do you know your
lesson today? He does not know (him, his). 7. This is your notebook
and this is his, but where is (her, hers)?
Упражнение 25.Выразите согласие или несогласие.
1. Do you Study at school? 2. Are you a student of the third
year? 3. Do you study many subjects? 4. Did you pass your entrance
exams well? 5. Do you live in Moscow? 6. Do you live far
from the institute? 7. Is English your favourite subject? 8. Will you
go to the concert tomorrow? 9. Were your books taken from the library?
10. Do you live in the hostel?
Упражнение 26.Заполните пропуски предлогами //i, at, on, to, into, under,
1. We live ... Moscow. 2.1 get up ... seven o'clock and leave ...
eight. 3.1 usually walk ... the institute. 4. There are three rooms ...
our flat. 5. There is a picture ... the wall and a small table ... the
picture. 6. He comes ... the room and sits down ... the chair ... the
table. 7. ... the evening we watch TV or read books. 8. We do not
study... Sunday. 9. There are several newspapers ... the table. 10. The
accident happened ... the bridge.
Упражнение 27.Дайте недостающие формы глагола, запомните их.
got, beginning, took, meant, say, becoming, found, brought,
Упражнение 28.Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря.
As you know higher education trains highly-qualified specialists
for further development and progress of the country. The students
making good progress get state grants. The course of study at the
universities lasts about six years. The students take three or four
years of general engineering and fundamental courses, then one or
two years of specialized training in some fields of science and technology.
In the first and second years a good foundation for professional
knowledge is provided. At present there are many modern
laboratories at institutes. Most higher schools have their own computer
centers. This means that the state must spend a lot of money
to improve higher education.
Exercise 1.Answer the questions.
1. How old are you now? 2. Where were you born? 3. What city
did you come from? 4. Where did you go to school? 5. What foreign
language did you study at school? 6. How long did you study at
school? 7. Why did you enter this institute? 8. What are your favourite
subjects at the institute? 9. Where do you live? 10. Do you
live with your family? 11. How do you usually spend your Saturday
and Sunday? 12. What did you do last weekend? 13. What are
you going to do next weekend? 14. What is your favourite sport?
15. What is your hobby? 16. Where do you usually spend your
summer vacation? 17. When do you usually get up in the morning?
18. At what time do you usually leave home? 19. How do you
usually get to the institute?
Exercise 2.Read and learn.
Ted's instructor: Hello Ted. Vm glad I saw you before lectures. Did
you know about the change in the examination
Yes. The last day of examinations for your group
will be January 23rd not January 21st.
Is that definite (определенно, точно)? We were
told they'd be on January 22nd.
There can be no changes now. It's definitely January
That's great. Fm going to London on holiday on
Have you finished your assignment (домашнее
Ted: I'm nearly there. I think I'll give it to you on Tuesday.
Ted's ins.: That's good. I can't let you have another extension
Ted: I was really grateful for the extra time you gave me. That