Перевод страдательного залога
Образование страдательного залога
Focus on Grammar
Computer Science Translating
Пассивную форму (Passive Voice) глагола можно отличить от активной (Active) благодаря наличию вспомогательного глагола bе перед причастием II от смыслового глагола: bв + Participle II (-ed, 3-я форма).
1. Страдательный залог при переводе на русский язык может быть передан:
а) кратким страдательным причастием прошедшего времени с суффиксом -н или -т (с вспомогательным глаголом быть или без него), т.е. русским страдательным залогом;
б) глаголом на -ся в соответствующем времени, лице и числе;
в) глаголом действительного залога в соответствующем времени, 3-м лице мн.числа, являющимся частью неопределенно-личного предложения:
The experiments were made last year.
a) Опыты (были) проведены в прошлом году.
b) Опыты проводились в прошлом году.
c) Опыты проводили в прошлом году.
2. Предложения с сочетаниями “модальный глагол + инфинитив страдательного залога” рекомендуется переводить со словами можно, нужно, следует и др.:
| The problem must be solved.
|| Эту проблему нужно решить.
3. Страдательный залог с подлежащим it переводится неопределенно-личным предложеним:
It was Thought . . . – Думали, полагали .
It was known . . . – Известно . . .
4. При переводе английских предложений с глаголом в форме страдательнога залога часто используется обратный порядок слов (русское предложение начинается со сказуемого):
| New technique has been developed.
|| Была разработана Новая методика.
1. Можно выделить два типа глаголов, которые вызывают трудности при переводе на русский, если они используются в страдательном залоге:
а) глаголы, которые требуют после себя дополнения с предлогом и в русском переводе тоже имеют предложное дополнение, например:
to depend on (upon) smth. — зависеть от чего-л.
to deal with smth. — иметь дело с чём-л.
to refer to smth. — ссылаться на что-л.
Примечание. Запомните перевод глагола to refer to в сочетании со словом as: to refer to as 'называться', например:
| The phenomenon is referred to as acceleration.
|| Это явление называется акселерацией.
б) глаголы, за которыми идет беспредложное дополнение, но которые в русском переводе требуют предложного, например:
to answer smth. — отвечать на
to follow smth. — следовать за чём-л.
to affect smth. — влиять на что-л.
to influence smth. — влиять на что-л.
to approach smth. — подходить в чему-л.
При переводе предложений, включающих оба типа глаголов в страдательном залоге, русское предложение следует начинать с предлога, например:
| It is quite evident that not every experiment can be relied upon.
The problem was not dealt with.
Many questions were answered correctly
|| Вполне очевидно, что не на каждый эксперимент можно положиться.
(С этой проблемой не имели дела.) Эта проблема не рассматривалась.
На многие вопросы были даны правильные ответы.
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на способы перевода английского страдательного залога:
1. He is often asked to speak at meetings. 2. They were explained how to solve this problem. 3. My friend was being asked many questions about his work when I entered the room. 4. Was Moscow University founded in 1755? 5. The conference will be held next week. 6. This experiment has just been completed. 7. Many books on the computers' architecture had been translated into Russian by the end of the year. 8. This computer's basic units are not being tested now. 9. The article will have been published in the journal by May. 10. The invention of computers will not be spoken about at the next lecture. 11. Is the program being loaded now? 12. The new department has not been opened yet. 13. The program will be written in three days. 14. These facts are well known. 15. They have just been told the news. 16. The book was translated into all European languages. 17. Complex calculations are being carried out with the help of the computer now. 18. This personal computer had been constructed in our lab by the end of the year. 19. The results of the experiment were carefully being checked up all the day yesterday. 20. These digits are easily multiplied. 21. The results of computations were recorded in the form of tables. 22. The newest electronic memory systems will be much spoken about.
Упражнение 2. Измените следующие предложения по модели, поставив сказуемое в страдательный залог.
Модель: They speak English in Canada. — English is spoken in Canada.
1. They produce these computers in Japan. 2. The famous Russian scientist M. V. Lomonosov compiled a lot of calculating tables. 3. A well-known scientist will address the conference. 4. He is typing the name of the file now. 5. W. Oughtred had constructed the first slide-rule by 1630. 6. B.Pascal built an adding machine in 1642. 7. Very large-scale intergration technologies will have reduced the size of computers by the end of the century. 8. They have already discussed the problems of artificial intelligence. 9. We were carrying out experiments when you came in. 10. We shall place the plus sign between these numerals. 11. People have used punched cards since the earliest days. 12. The presence of the CONTROL key allows each letter key to have one more meaning.
Упражнение 3. Откройте скобки, поставив глагол в нужную видо-временную форму:
1. The instructions (to be recorded) in the order in which they are to be carried out. 2. Many new branches of industry (to be developed) in our country since World War D. 3. The concept of the stored program (to be worked out) by J. Neuman in 1945. 4. The constituent parts of the computer (to be called) hardware. 5. A new program (to be compiled) when I came. 6. All these calculations (to be done) by 5 o'clock yesterday. 7. The information (to be collected) by the end of the next week. 8. This examination (to be taken) tomorrow. 9. Your papers (to be typed) now. Wait a minute. 10. A new input device (to be discussed) when we came. 11. A new model of the printer (to be shown) tomorrow. 12. Microcomputers (to be applied) since the 1970s. 13. Only one branch of a program (to be selected) on each occasion. 14. "Connector" symbols (to be used) to show the exit to or the entry from another point in the same flowchart.
Упражнение 4. Определите время и залог сказуемого и переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. Actually, the term "computer" is fast being replaced by the more appropriate term "electronic data processing machine." 2. Recently certain binary machines have been announced which will be capable of utilizing magnetic disc file memories. 3. This kind of computers will be equipped with a disc file of extremely high capacity and access speed. 4. In the past few years several designs have been advanced and some have actually been built. 5. Business variables have been and are being expressed as mathematical functions and are being statistically analyzed. 6. Eight distinguished speakers have been asked to consider the potentialities and limitations of the computer in activities related to management. 7. The problem of designing a non-mechanical printer has already been studied in the central research laboratory. 8. The computer is given position data and velocity vectors of the satellite for a given time. 9. The idea of organizing the excursion to the Central Statistical Department has been approved by all the students present at the meeting. 10. The magnetron is a vacuum tube whose current is influenced by a magnetic field. 11. When a battery is being charged, a certain number of ampere hours will be added to the battery. 12. The kind of computer which takes in and manipulates information in this form is called digital.
Запомните следующие словосочетания и их эквиваленты:
to give consideration to = to consider — рассматривать
to make allowance for = to allow for — учитывать, делать поправку на
to make an attempt = to attempt — пытаться, делать попытку
to make contribution to = to contribute to — вносить вклад
to make mention of = to mention — упоминать о
to make reference to = to refer to — ссылаться на
to make use of = to use — использовать(ся)
to place emphasis on = to emphasize — делать упор на, подчеркивать
to take advantage of = to use — воспользоваться, использовать
to take care of = to care — следить, заботиться
to take note (notice) of = to pay attention to — обращать внимание на
to take steps +инфинитив = принимать меры, предпринимать шаги.
Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения, уделяя особое внимание сказуемым в страдательном залоге:
1. In his book emphasis is placed on the localization problem. 2. Reference was made of his earlier publication. 3. Mention is made of an improved version of this method. 4. An important contribution was made to the study of this phenomenon. 5. Care must be taken to assure that an even number of logical inversions occur. 6. An attempt was made to redefine the previous year's budget. 7. In their discussion no account was taken of the environmental conditions. 8. Advantage is often taken of the effect of temperature on solubility. 9. In this chapter detailed consideration is given to digital computers. 10. In deriving these formulas no allowance was made for temperature increase. 11. In the following notice is chiefly taken of the former point. 12. Special attention has been called to the research work. 13. Steps are taken to diminish friction.
Некоторые способы перевода предлога by:
1) путем, с помощью;
2) к — в основном при наличии глагола в форме Perfect;
3) написанный, составленный, проведенный — если bу употребляется перед собственными именами;
4) на — если bу употребляется с глаголами типа to divide 'разделить', (tо multiply 'умножить', to increase 'увеличивать';
5) by не переводится, когда передает отношения, выражаемые в русском языке творительным падежом.
| The necessary amount of energy is provided by a mechanical system.
By 1930 they had succeeded in building the first differential analyzer.
Six divided by three is two.
|| Необходимое количество энергии обеспечивается с помощью механической системы.
К 1930 году им удалось построить первый дифференциальный анализатор. Шесть, деленное на три, равняется двум.
Упражнение 6. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод предлога by.
1. You can judge (tell) a man by the company he keeps. 2. Man cannot live by bread alone. 3. I have a lot of textbooks by this author. 4. Peace cannot be kept by force. It can only be achieved by understanding. 5. You may know by a handful the whole sack. 6. By medicine life may be prolonged, yet death will seize the doctor too. 7. The bull must be taken by the horns. 8. Experience is achieved by industry. 9. Our solution resembles a little the solution by Brambilla.
Некоторые способы перевода глагола to follow и его производных (Participle I, II):
to follow – 1) следовать за; 2) следить за; 3) использовать (о методе, теории и т. д.), прослеживаться;
following – 1) следующий за; 2) использующий; 3) после;
followed by – за которым следует, с последующим.
| Data analysis follows data gathering.
We followed his method.
Following the experiment the end product was tested.
The structure is studied in Chapter 13, followed by Chapter 14 on its applications.
|| Анализ данных следует за сбором данных.
Мы использовали его метод.
После (проведения) эксперимента конечный продукт был испытан.
Эта структура рассматривается в главе 13, за которой следует глава 14, сообщающая о ее применениях.
Упражнение 7. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод глагола to follow и его производных:
1. Here is a complicated introductory paragraph followed by a slightly easier one. 2. The following is a brief outline of these components. 3. The review is followed by a discussion of the problem. 4. The following parameters should be monitored and controlled. 5. The proof follows the same type of arguments as the one for Lemma 1. 6. A sudden increase in demand will be followed by the rise of plant capacity. 7. Following the war the firm's output greatly increased. 8. The logical strategy to follow would be to proceed to the following step. 9. The nature of the process will be discussed first and this will be followed by an interpretation of the actual curves.
Запомните значения следующих глаголов с предлогами:
account for – объяснять, обосновывать, являться причиной;
agree upon (on) – договориться, условиться;
arrive at – приходить к (заключению, решению);
bring about – вызывать, осуществлять;
deal with – рассматривать, разбирать, заниматься, касаться;
depart from – отклоняться, уклоняться от;
do away with – покончить с, отказаться от;
insist on (upon) – настаивать на;
refer to – ссылаться на, упоминать о, направлять к, отсылать к;
rely on (upon) – полагаться на;
send for – посылать за;
speak, talk about (of) – говорить о;
subject to – подвергать (действию, влиянию);
think about (of) – думать о.
Упражнение 8. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, не забывая при переводе о месте предлога:
1. A number of scientific experiments in the near earth region has been referred to in that article. 2. Manual and automatic aerodynamic control during reentry will be spoken of at the next scientific conference. 3. Old traditions cannot be easily done away with. 4. As a consequence of the very high beam velocity, a large amount of waste energy must be disposed of. 5. The extremely high voltage of the transformer in the case under consideration was spoken of at the conference. 6. The method that has been introduced by that group of engineers will be dealt with in the next chapter. 7. New methods for measuring the results of the experiments are being in search of. 8. The detailed description of the speed indicator is insisted upon by the chief engineer. 9. For the first time the problem under discussion was referred to last year. 10. The changes taking place are not easily accounted for. 11. The sequence of events was brought about by the discovery of radioactivity. 12. Newton’s laws of motion may be subjected to criticism. 13. Many materials now in common use were not even thought of thirty years ago.
Упражнение 9. Подчеркните сказуемое с отделяемым предлогом, переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. The body may be acted on by any number of external forces having arbitrary directions and applied at arbitrary points of the body. 2. This engine is usually referred to as an internal combustion engine because fuel is burned within its cylinders or combustion chambers. 3. An interesting case involving parallel forces occurs when a body is acted on by two forces which are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction and whose lines of action do not coincide. 4. The resistance of a given conductor depends on the material it is made of. 5. A battery or other source supplies a potential difference for the circuit it is connected to. 6. The performance of a given tube depends upon the efficiency free electrons are produced with. 7. Whatever the nature of the tube and the arrangement of electrodes, an emitting electrode is not dispensed with. 8. There is, however, one particular mode of variation which is met with in practice so frequently that it is worth while to develop formulas for this special case. 9. This phenomenon is accounted for by the sudden rise of temperature. 10. Newton’s ‘Particle Theory’ is sometimes referred to as the ‘Corpuscular Theory’ since corpuscles are very small particles. 11. Every breach of rules was dealt with as a breach of the law and punishment was proportionally severe. 12. When the molecules of even a good insulator are acted upon by an electric field, there is a motion of electrons due to this field.
Вспомогательный глагол be в составе сказуемых, выраженных глаголами в страдательной форме, может быть заменен вспомогательными глаголами get и become. Значит, в тексте можно встретить три разновидности страдательного залога:
be+Participle II – констатация действия, состояния;
become+Participle II – становление действия;
get+Participle II – приход в новое состояние; добиться какого-то действия.
Некоторые способы перевода глагола to get:
1) получать, доставать — смысловой глагол;
2) становиться — глагол-связка;
3) заставлять — в обороте «дополнение с инфинитивом»;
4) get не переводится, когда является вспомогательным глаголом при образовании страдательного залога.
Упражнение 10. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на варианты страдательного залога:
1. The latter problem has started to get special attention. 2. What happens when a boxer gets knocked out in the ring? 3. To get the best out of any language, some knowledge of simulation techniques is essential. 4. As people get older they grow more set in their ways and do not welcome any innovation. 5. You cannot get blood out of a stone. 6. You cannot expect to get anything without working for it. 7. He got his proposals accepted. 8. The point of equilibrium however is tremendously influenced by the temperature. 9. The results were affected by the presence of impurities. 10. This phenomenon has been dealt with by several researchers. 11. In ethers and similar solvents the frequency was unaffected. 12. No difficulties were met at all. 13. The reaction was followed by measuring temperature. 14. The experiment will be followed by testing the end product. 15. This usage is not followed in carbohydrate chemistry. 16. Hamilton's discovery was quickly followed by other new algebras. 17. No amount of selected examples, however convincing, can be relied upon. 18. What is watched or waited for seems too long in coming. 19. As far as other compounds of this series are concerned they will be dealt with in another chapter. 20. While such special cases are rather easily dealt with the general problem is considerably more difficult. 21. The changes in water content will be accompanied by alterations in salt concentrations, and the latter are also affected by the ionic concentrations of the food ingested. 22. This problem can be approached from several points of view. 23. The congress was referred to as a most representative forum in this field.
Упражнение 11. Найдите в следующих предложениях формы страдательного залога и переведите их на русский язык:
1. Fallacies of this kind can often be met with. 2. Every thing is affected by its relations to everything else. 3. A decision was arrived at. 4. This is hardly to be wondered at. 5. This central idea must not be lost sight of. 6. Methods employed in solving a problem are strongly influenced by the research objective. 7. As data are changed, how are outputs affected? 8. This paper was shortly followed by another by the same author. 9. Any statement which must be referred to by any other statement in the program must be identified by a "statement number". 10. The inward component is not affected by any of these treatments. 11. These rules were arrived at independently. 12. Often objects can be defined and dealt with independent of their parameters. 13. A printer gets assigned temporally to a user as his own whilst he uses it. 14. Mercury becomes contaminated and cannot be reused. 15. The output gets subtracted from the input signal. 16. Different forms of experience were studied and became organized into a science.
Упражнение 12. Переведите предложения, выделяя сказуемые в страдательном залоге.
1. Mathematics is loved by many, disliked by a few, admired and respected by all. 2. Facts alone are wanted in life. 3. These parts are made of steel throughout. 4. At this point the material under examination is fed. 5. The treatment of this theory was modified. 6. The possibilities under consideration will be discussed in detail. 7. The shop will be equipped with automatic machinery. 8. The initiative was supported by everybody. 9. As far as this theory is concerned there are different views. 10. The machine was tried under severe conditions. 11. This stage was preceded by careful study of the results. 12. If you already know what these terms mean, proceed directly to Chapter 1, in which the procedure is presented. 13. No stage of the design can be completed in the absence of a complete specification of the system under design. 14. This requirement must be met. 15. Little was known about subsequent negotiations except that no agreement was reached. 16. In an inductive argument data about past and future are taken as "reasons". 17. Under these conditions the requirements involved are only partially met. 18. Significant variance reductions can be effected by these procedures. 19. Considerably less was written about mechanisms for effecting state changes. 20. The incompatibility of "this is good" and "this is not good" is preserved. 21. The intellect is involved into action. 22. Such acts are forbidden by law. 23. The number of degrees of freedom is reduced by the number of imposed constraints. 24. The task is executed through successive completion of such cycles. 25. The importance of this phenomenon was underestimated. 26. What is written without effort is in general read without pleasure. 27. The special case derivations will not be provided, but the numerical results will be provided. 28. The work was considered important and is under way to be completed.
Упражнение 13. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:
1. When a beam is subjected to bending, internal stresses are set up. 2. The meteors of a shower are moving in parallel directions through space with the same speed. 3. Freezing points as well as boiling points are affected by external pressure. 4. The magnetron is a vacuum tube whose current is influenced by a magnetic field. 5. In the common radio tubes electrons are thrown off from the cathode when it is heated. 6. When a battery is being charged, a certain number of ampere hours will be added to the battery. 7. Another subject in Radio Astronomy concerns the reception of radio waves which are being generated by some processes in outer space. 8. In an amplitude-modulated broadcast transmitter during a moment when no music or speech is being broadcast, the antenna sends out its radio signal at a constant intensity or amplitude. 9. Radioactive isotopes offer an excellent method of treatment for many diseases, and are already being widely used for treatment by medical establishments. 10. Electrical circuits were dealt with in Chapter I and this chapter will be confined principally to magnetic circuits. 11. When a body or structure is subjected to external loads, internal forces are created by the corresponding elastic deformation of the body or structure which oppose the external forces and thereby maintain equilibrium. 12. The vertical and horizontal lobes on a kite balloon are sometimes referred to as stabilizers. 13. In one type of air-speed indicator there is a difference of pressure between the two sides of the diaphragm, which is caused to move, and this movement is transferred to an indicator dial on a clock face which is calibrated so as to read in miles per hour. 14. Certain corrections that are needed with both the airspeed indicator and the altimeter are given by a computer, which has been specially designed to allow for certain physical changes in the atmosphere. 15. Atmospheric pressure, which is due to the weight of the air, is measured by the height of a column of a mercury. 16. The air is warmed by the sun, not directly by the sun's rays but due to the fact that the earth absorbs the radiation from the sun, converts this into heat, and then transfers this heat to the air by convection. 17. These molecules are acted on both by forces of cohesion exerted on them by other molecules of the liquid and by forces of adhesion exerted by the molecules of the wall.
Упражнение 14. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на формы страдательного залога:
1. Never ask pardon before you are accused. 2. Little thieves are hanged, but great ones escape. 3. What may be done at any time will be done at no time. 4. Nature is often hidden; sometimes overcome; seldom extinguished (F. Bacon). 5. Goodness of an object is defined by its relation to other objects. 6. This is rooted in instinct. 7. A mechanical method was substituted for an electric one. 8. Intuitive skill is required in forecasting opinions. 9. For the estimations use will be made of a hypothetical reference model. 10. Assume that all demands must be met on time. 11. The distinction between cause and effect cannot be established or altered by any authority, external or internal. 12. The decision is reached by balancing pleasures against pain. 13. Each sensor was assigned a corresponding specified coordinate S. 14. From now on it is assumed that the machines under consideration are strongly connected. 15. The question of the laws of resistances in circuits may now be turned to. 16. Many materials now commonly used were not even thought of thirty years ago. 17. Biological methods of purifying water are given much attention to by scientists. 18. The range of application of gas chromatography is wide and most substances boiling under 300°C can be dealt with readily. 19. Political and economic penetration was soon followed by outright annexation. 20. Their defeat was utter and awful. Mercy was not thought of. 21. The book was terribly bad, it was just a chance that it got published. 22. Mathematics, astronomy and physics were the first sciences to get organized and defined. 23. When exposed to a beam of light this movement becomes oriented in the direction of the beam, and on a vertical surface it becomes directed by gravity. 24. The speed with which arithmetic operations are performed is affected by a number of factors. 25. In gaseous reactions the equilibrium position is largely influenced by pressure. 26. The qualitative examination of an organic compound is followed by a quantitative analysis. 27. Questions can be asked and answered, but unfortunately the questions asked and those answered are frequently not the same.
Упражнение 15. Переведите следующий текст на русский язык, подчёркивая и анализируя формы сказуемого:
One of the most striking characteristics of modern science has been the increasing trend towards closer co-operation between scientists and scientific institutions all over the world. What have been the reasons for this? One of the factors has already been discussed, i.e. the growing complexity and widening scope of present-day research, which has resulted in the creation of large organization employing great numbers of scientists and technologists. This has led to the extension of many items of research beyond national boundaries. The most important factor, however, has been the magnitude of the problems to be solved. In fact, it is becoming more and more evident that many of the problems cannot be solved except by the pooling of scientific effort and material resources on world-wide scale. As a result of the conditions outlined above international co-operation has been greatly intensified during the last 20 years.
Упражнение 16. Переведите следующий текст, обращая внимание на перевод страдательного залога:
A computer is a general purpose machine which represents and processes information. The machine is hardware, and we apply it for specific tasks by means of software, i.e., programs, or lists of instructions which are written in the code that the computer has been manufactured to understand. The fundamental principles of programming are connected with the sequence of instructions, the use of flowcharts, symbolic coding aids, loops, etc. The terms "coding" and "programming" are often used as synonyms.
However, "a code" is more specifically a short list of instructions that direct the computer to perform only a part of the entire calculations, whereas the term "program", means the complete list of instructions used for the problem. Hence programming usually includes the overall planning of computer application for a particular problem as well- as writing instructions lists, or codes, whereas coding is usually limited in meaning to just writing instructions lists.
The basic stages in a program preparation are: 1) problem analysis, 2) outline or macroflowcharting, 3) detailed or microflowcharting, 4) coding, 5) input preparation, 6) testing and debugging. Some of the above stages may be overlapped, and each stage is followed by a careful check.
Each problem must be clearly defined before the programming function can be performed. It must be analysed in terms of "how must a program be written so that the computer can solve it?" The initial problem analysis usually runs together with outline flowcharting.
The detailed flowchart is developed from the outline flowchart. It is used to show the program in a detailed preparation for coding, the relationship between different parts of a code. The same symbols are used in a detailed flowchart as in an outline flowchart. The detailed flowchart is checked carefully for errors in logic. At the coding stage the program may be coded in a machine code or by means of a programming language. The machine code can be immediately understood by the computer without translation. Machine code programming requires that the instructions are listed out in the form which is identical to the format of the instructions in the internal store. The address of each constant, item of data and instruction must be noted. The word "language", when used as a technical term in programming, means a collection of rules which specify now certain symbols may be combined to form meaningful statements. (Languages in the nontechnical sense, such as English, are called natural languages in programming). The bridge between the programming language program and the required machine code program is provided of means of special processor program, or translator. The initial program written by a programmer is called the source program. Since it is only the machine code which the computer can understand, the processor program translates source program into the required, machine code program which is called the object program.
There are some important factors that characterize programming languages: the way and the time at which the object program is prepared, the "level" of the programming language, the format and the general structure of the source program, the basic data types, the possibility to use the program for other types of the computer, etc.
After the coding stage some procedure is used to input the program into the memory of the computer and then to debug the program, i.e., to detect and correct errors. The processor program "flags" (i.e. prints indicative symbols against) incorrect statements in the source program, it is well known that a single error in one instruction invalidates the entire code.
When all the errors are corrected and the program is debugged, the CU (central unit) will execute the instructions and the results will be tabulated.
ИНФИНИТИВ (THE INFINITIVE)