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I. Read and translate the text. IX.Write down sentences with the following idioms


IX.Write down sentences with the following idioms.

VIII.Write down the forms of the irregular verbs.

VII. Give the English equivalents for the following.

- воспользоваться новыми возможностями

- отбирать и обучать персонал

- ставить цели и задачи

- приводить к трудностям

- получать лицензию

- рискованное дело

- использовать последние технологии

- зависеть от законов



To ring, to steal, to hold, to show, to build, to lie, to pay, to shine, to hit, to set.



1. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. – Лучше синица в руках, чем журавль в небе.

2. The lion share’s – Львиная доля


Unit 17


Traffic includes transfer of people, goods (cargo, freight), information (post, telegraph, telephone, computer) and energy (electricity, water, gas).

Goods are carried by land (rail, road), air, sea, inland waterways (rivers, canals) and pipelines.

The quality of transport services within a transport system depends mainly on the costs and also on the factors such as efficiency and predictability of a service, speed, availability and frequency, regularity and safety.

Rail Transport is indispensable to the inland transportation of bulk shipments (grain, ore, oil, timber, coal). That requires a lot of handling operations (loading, unloading) which may cause delay, loss or damage. Rail transport costs are relatively high as railways – unlike road carriers, lorries, and hauliers must have their own track, stations and signaling systems. This is reflected in rather high freight rates per unit, which are regressive with the distance. This makes rail transportation economical for large shipments sent long distance.

The introduction of containerization and train ferry services has eliminated a number of disadvantages in rail transport and has made rail services much more attractive and convenient.

Road transport has become a serious competitor to rail. The manufacturer or producer can maintain his own service of lorries (trucks) or engage a firm undertaking to carry goods for general public or a haulier – a firm undertaking long distance freighting of heavy goods. Road transport involves the use of specialized vehicles: refrigerated lorries , tanker lorries, etc. With the introduction of the ferry services the door-to-door service has expanded across the sea. Road vehicles do not run to a timetable, and can use any of the network of roads.

The main advantage of air transport is speed, particularly in international and intercontinental routes, but the services are costly. The transportation costs involve, besides freight, airport taxes and landing fees, handling and warehousing of freight, at the airport site, and other specialized services operated by the airport. As a result, air transport is generally regarded as suited only to transportation of small, valuable consignment(gold, precious stones), perishables (e.g. cherries), and goods urgently needed ( e.g. spare parts for machinery). However, a lot of savings may be achieved by economy of speed, packing, reduced insurance rates, etc.

Sea transport is best suited to the carriage of large quantities of bulk goods. About three quarters of the world trade volume is carried by sea, with the carriage of liquids (oil) increasing in size faster than of solids (raw materials, such as iron ore, grains, coal).


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