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-(3434)-(809)-(7483)-(1457) -(14632) -(1363)-(913)-(1438)-(451)-(1065)-(47672) -(912)-(14524) -(4268)-(17799)-(1338)-(13644)-(11121)-(55)-(373)-(8427)-(374)-(1642)-(23702)-(16968)-(1700)-(12668)-(24684)-(15423)-(506)-(11852) -(3308)-(5571)-(1312)-(7869)-(5454)-(1369)-(2801)-(97182)-(8706)-(18388)-(3217)-(10668) -(299)-(6455)-(42831)-(4793)-(5050)-(2929)-(1568)-(3942)-(17015)-(26596)-(22929)-(12095)-(9961)-(8441)-(4623)-(12629)-(1492) -(1748)

Syntactical classification of phraseological units

Phraseological units can be clasified as parts of speech. This classification was suggested by I.V. Arnold. Here we have the following groups:

a) noun phraseologisms denoting an object, a person, a living being, e.g. bullet train, latchkey child, redbrick university, Green Berets.

Set expressions functioning like nouns (noun phraseologisms): N+N: maiden name the surname of a woman before she was married; brains trust a committee of experts or a number of reputedly well informed persons chosen to answer questions of general interest without preparation. Ns + N: cats paw one who is used for the convinience of a cleverer and stronger person (the expression comes from a fable in which a monkey wanting to eat some chestnuts that were on a hot stove, but not wishing to burn himself while getting them, seized a cat and holding its paw in his own used it to knock the chestnuts to the ground); Hobsons choice, a set expression used when there is no choice at all, when a person has to take what is offered or nothing (Thomas Hobson, a 17th century London stableman, made every person hiring horses take the next in order). N+prep+N: the arm of the law. N+A: knight errant (the phrase is today applied to any chivalrous man ready to help and protect oppressed and helpless people). N+and+N: lord and master husband; all the world and his wife everybody; rank and file the ordinary working members of an organization( the origin of this expression is military life, it denotes common soldiers); ways and means methods of overcoming difficulties. A+N: green room the general reception room of a theatre (it is said that formerly such rooms had their walls coloured green to relieve the strain on the actorseyes after the stage lights); high tea an evening meal which combines meat or some similar extra dish with the usual tea. N+subordinate clause: ships that pass in the night chance acquaintances.

b) verb phraseologisms denoting an action, a state, a feeling, e.g. to break the log-jam, to get on somebodys coattails, to be on the beam, to nose out , to make headlines.

Set expressions functioning like verbs: V+N: to take advantage; V+postpositive: to give up; V+and+V: to pick and choose; V+(ones)+N+(prep): to snap ones fingers at; V+one+N: to give one the bird to fire smb. V+subordinate clause: to see how the land lies to discover the state of affairs.

c) adjective phraseologisms denoting a quality, e.g. loose as a goose, dull as lead.

Set expressions functioning like adjectives: A+and+A: high and mighty (as)+A+as+N: as old as the hills, as mad as a hatter.



d) adverb phraseological units: with a bump, in the soup, like a dream , like a dog with two tails.

Set expressions functioning like adverbs: A big group containing many different types of units, some of them with a high frequency index, neutral in style and devoid of expressiveness, others expressive. N+N: tooth and nail, Prep+N: by heart, of course, Adv+prep+A+N: once in a blue moon, Prep+N+or+N: by hook or by crook, Conj+clause: before one can say Jack Robinson.

e) preposition phraseological units, e.g. in the course of, on the stroke of ,

Set expressions functioning like prepositions: Prep+N+prep: in consequence of. It should be noted that the type is often but not always characterized by the absence of the article e.g. by reason of on the ground of.

f) interjection phraseological units, e.g. Catch me!, Well, I never! etc.

Set expressions functioning like interjections. These are often structured as imperative sentences: Bless (ones soul)! God bless me! Hang it (all)! Take your time!

In I.V. Arnolds classification there are also sentence equivalents, proverbs, sayings and quotations, e.g. The sky is the limit, What makes him tick, I am easy. Proverbs are usually metaphorical, e.g. Too many cooks spoil the broth, while sayings are as a rule non-metaphorical, e.g. Where there is a will there is a way.

5. Kunins classifications of phraseological units

A.V. Kunin classified phraseological units according to the way they are formed. He pointed out primary and secondary ways of forming phraseological units.

Primary ways of forming phraseological units are those when a unit is formed on the basis of a free word-group :

a) Most productive in Modern English is the formation of phraseological units by means of transferring the meaning of terminological word-groups, e.g. in cosmic technique we can point out the following phrases: launching pad in its terminological meaning is , in its transferred meaning - , to link up - c, in its tranformed meaning it means -;

b) a large group of phraseological units was formed from free word groups by transforming their meaning, e.g. granny farm - , Troyan horse - , ;

c) phraseological units can be formed by means of alliteration , e.g. a sad sack - , culture vulture - , , fudge and nudge - .

d) they can be formed by means of expressiveness, especially it is characteristic for forming interjections, e.g. My aunt!, Hear, hear ! etc

e) they can be formed by means of distorting a word group, e.g. odds and ends was formed from odd ends,

f) they can be formed by using archaisms, e.g. in brown study means in gloomy meditation where both components preserve their archaic meanings,

g) they can be formed by using a sentence in a different sphere of life, e.g. that cock wont fight can be used as a free word-group when it is used in sports (cock fighting ), it becomes a phraseological unit when it is used in everyday life, because it is used metaphorically,

h) they can be formed when we use some unreal image, e.g. to have butterflies in the stomach - , to have green fingers - - etc.

i) they can be formed by using expressions of writers or polititions in everyday life, e.g. corridors of power (Snow), American dream (Alby) locust years (Churchil) , the winds of change (Mc Millan).

Secondary ways of forming phraseological units are those when a phraseological unit is formed on the basis of another phraseological unit; they are:

a) conversion, e.g. to vote with ones feet was converted into vote with ones f eet;

b) changing the grammar form, e.g. Make hay while the sun shines is transferred into a verbal phrase - to make hay while the sun shines;

c) analogy, e.g. Curiosity killed the cat was transferred into Care killed the cat;

d) contrast, e.g. cold surgery - a planned before operation was formed by contrasting it with acute surgery, thin cat - a poor person was formed by contrasting it with fat cat;

e) shortening of proverbs or sayings e.g. from the proverb You cant make a silk purse out of a sows ear by means of clipping the middle of it the phraseological unit to make a sows ear was formed with the meaning .

f) borrowing phraseological units from other languages, either as translation loans, e.g. living space (German), to take the bull by the horns ( Latin) or by means of phonetic borrowings meche blanche (French), corpse delite (French), sotto voce (Italian) etc.

Phonetic borrowings among phraseological units refer to the bookish style and are not used very often.

The classification system of phraseological units based on the combined structural-semantic principle and the stability of phraseological units suggested by Professor A. V. Koonin is the latest out-standing achievement in the Russian theory of phraseology. Phraseological units are subdivided into the following four classes according to their function in communication determined by their structural-semantic characteristics: nominative, nominative-communicative, interjectional, communicative.

1. Nominative phraseological units are represented by word-groups, including the ones with one meaningful word, and coordinative phrases of the type wear and tear, well and good. Nominative phraseological units are units denoting objects, phenomena, actions, states, qualities. They can be:

a) Verbal. E. g. to run for one's (dear) life, to get (win) the upper hand, to talk through one's hat, to make a song and dance about something, to sit pretty (Amer. sl.).

b)substantive a snake in the grass ( ), a bitter pill to swallow; dog's life, cat-and-dog life, calf love, white lie, tall order, birds of a feather, birds of passage, red tape, brown study.

c) adjectival long in the tooth (); high and mighty, spick and span, brand new, safe and sound. In this group the so-called comparative word-groups are particularly expressive and sometimes amusing in their unanticipated and capricious associations: (as) cool as a cucumber, (as) nervous as a cat, (as) weak as a kitten, (as) good as gold (usu. spoken about children), (as) pretty as a picture, as large as life, (as) slippery as an eel, (as) thick as thieves, (as) drunk as an owl (sl.), (as) mad as a hatter/a hare in March.

d) adverbial out of a blue sky, as quick as a flash; high and low (as in They searched for him high and low), by hook or by crook (as in She decided that, by hook or by crook, she must marry him), for love or money (as in He came to the conclusion that a really good job couldn't be found for love or money), in cold blood (as in The crime was said to have been committed in cold blood), in the dead of night, between the devil and the deep sea (in a situation in which danger threatens whatever course of action one takes), to the bitter end (as in to fight to the bitter end), by a long chalk (as in It is not the same thing, by a long chalk).

e) prepositional with an eye to ( ), at the head of.

The first class also includes word-groups with a predicative structure, such as as the crow flies, and, also, predicative phrases of the type see how the land lies, ships that pass in the night.

2. Nominative-communicative phraseological units contain a verb and include word-groups of the type to break the ice the ice is broken, that is, verbal word-groups which are transformed into a sentence when the verb is used in the Passive Voice. E.g. to dance on a volcano, to set the Thames on fire ( - ), to know which side one's bread is buttered, to make (someone) turn (over) in his grave, to put the hat on smbs misery ( ).

3. Interjectional phraseological units express the speakers emotions and attitude to things: A pretty kettle of fish! ( ), Good God! God damn it! Like hell! Theyare neither nominative nor communicative and include interjectional word-groups.

4. Communicative phraseological units are represented by proverbs (An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening; Never say never) and sayings. Sayings, unlike provebs, are not evaluative and didactic: Thats another pair of shoes! Its a small world.

Some linguists (N.N. Amosova, J. Casares) dont include proverbs and sayings into their classifications. Others (I.V. Arnold, A.V. Koonin, V.V. Vinogradov) do, on the grounds that like in phraseological units their components are never changed and that phraseological units are often formed on the basis of proverbs and sayings (A drowning man will clutch at a straw → to clutch at a straw).

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