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The individual and society




TEXT 1A

 

It is obvious that any textbook on land use planning begins by posing the question, "What is land use planning about?" It is not a difficult problem to give a simple answer to this basic question. Land use planning or land surveying is a process of managing the use and development of land resources in a sustainable way. It is essentially a study of the methods in which land use planners apply their knowledge, skills and efforts to the gifts of nature in order to satisfy their needs and wants.

Effective land use planning is impossible without land information. Such information includes land resource capacity, land tenure, land ownership and land use.

Even in the prosperous, economically advanced countries there is an aspect of survival. Land helps people to survive. That's why lands are very important resources for men.

Some people have the abilities to sustain life without outside assistance. But a large percentage of the human race of the third world still lives in very small self-sufficient peasant communities. These people experience great poverty, but they provide on an individual basis, for their own survival. They have a degree of economic independence.

The inhabitants of cities are totally incapable of providing for themselves, directly, the means of survival. Here we can observe the opposite situation – a high level of living together with an extreme economic dependence. Such people depend upon the efforts and co-operation of many thousands of specialist workers, among them land use planners. Land use planning is concerned with soil sciences, law, geodesy, geography, and computer. To solve these problems land use planners must be not only qualified but profoundly educated specialists.

 

5. Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:

 

Skill, trucks, land use planning, make, a land surveyor, community, compel, society, automobiles, a land use planner, land surveying, level, knowledge, standard.

 

6. Найдите антонимы среди следующих слов:

 

Capable, independence, possible, easy, directly, impossible, large, incapable, difficult, dependence, small, inderectly.

 

7. Переведите следующие сочетания слов с русского на английский язык:

 

Глубоко образованный специалист; большой процент; ставить вопрос; регулировать землеустройство; простой ответ; решать проблему; информация о земле; помощь извне; трудный вопрос; экономическая независимость; поддерживать жизнь; средство выживания; противоположная ситуация; для того, чтобы удовлетворить нужды.

 

 

8. Переведите следующие предложения с русского на английский язык:



 

1. Землеустройство - древняя наука. 2. Информация о земле включает землевладение, землепользование и потенциал земельных ресурсов. 3. Эффективное землеустройство невозможно без информации о земле. 4. Люди используют свои знания и навыки, чтобы удовлетворить свои нужды. 5. Даже в процветающих странах существует аспект выживания. 6. Землеустроитель может дать правильные ответы на многие вопросы.

 

9. Заполните пропуски соответствующей формой глагола to be:

1. Who ... the best specialist? 2. There ... vast land resources in Russia. 3. Last year there ... the highest crop in this region. 4. Next year you ... ... a land use planner. 5. I ... a second year student. 6. Land use planning ... concerned with different sciences. 7. In future effective land use planning ... ... impossible without land information.

 

10. Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы:

 

1. It is a difficult matter to give a simple answer to the basic question. 2. Land use planning is impossible without land information. 3. Such information includes land resources capacity et al. 4. Lands are very important resources for men. 5. People of the third world experience great poverty. 6. We observe a high level of living in some developed countries. 7. They have a degree of economic independence.

 

 

11. Заполните пропуски предлогами:

1. Land use planning is a process ... managing the use and development ... land resources ... a sustainable way. 2. Land helps people ... survive. 3. Many textbooks begin ... posing the basic question. 4. It is not a difficult problem ... give a right answer ... the main question. 5. ... order ... satisfy men's needs and wants people apply their knowledge ... the gifts ... nature.

12. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:

1. A land surveyor solves many problems. 2. The inhabitants decide problems of survival. 3. This information includes land ownership and land tenure. 4. Some people have the ability to sustain life without outside assistance. 5. A large percentage of the human race still lives in very small self-sufficient peasant communities.

 

13. Заполните пропуски, используя глаголы, данные в скобках:

1. This textbook ... by posing the basic question (to begin). 2. Effective land use planning ... impossible without land information (to be). 3. Some people ... knowledge and skills to satisfy their wants (to apply). 4. Land ... people to solve different problems (to help).

5. Nature ... men's needs and wants in many ways (to satisfy).

 

14. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What do most textbooks on land use planning begin by? 2. Why do people apply their knowledge and skills? 3. What is effective land use planning impossible without? 4. Are lands very important resources for men? 5. How does a large percentage of the human race still live? 6. What does land information include? 7.Do we observe a high level of living in large cities? 8. Is it important to have economic independence?

 

15. Перескажите текст 1A "The individual and society."

16. Прочтите, переведите текст В и сформулируйте основную мысль каждого абзаца:

 





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