Read correctly the words with letters c and g.
scalp scene scout scythe sculptor scale science scooter scud since
giraffe guerilla get girl gone giant gross gnome generate gymnasium
Phonetics is connected with non-linguistic sciences such as anatomy, acoustics and physiology. Sounds can be described with reference to anatomical places of articulation (dental, palatal), to their physical structure ( the frequency and amplitude characteristics of sound ways) and are articulated by our organs of speech.
Phonetics is also connected with social sciences. Sociophonetics studies the ways in which pronounciation interects with society. Society here is used in its broadest sense, to cover a spectrum of phoneme to do with nationality, more restricted regional and social groups and the specific interections of individuals within them. There are a innumerable facts to be discovered in above in a language as well investigated as English concearning the nature of the different kinds of English pronunciation we use in different situations- when we-re talking with peoples , superiors or subordinates ; when we’re “ on the job”, when we are old or young , male or female; when we’re trying to persuade in form that agree or disagree and so on. We may hope that very soon sociophonetics may supply elementary intonation about : “ who can say what how using word phonetic means to whom when and why”. In teaching phonetics we would consider the study of social linguistics to be an essential part of the explanation in the functional area of phonetic units.
Psycholinguistics as a disctinct area of interest developing in the early 60s and it’s earlyform covered the psychological implications of an elementary broad area, from acoustic phonetics to language pathology. There are strong mutual bonds of interest operating between linguistics , phonetics and psychology. The acquisition of language by children, the extent to which language mediates or structures thinking; the extent to which language is influenced and itself influences such things as memory, attention, recall;the extent to which language has 2nd role to play in the understanding in human development.
Phonetics is connected with grammar because through the system of reading rules it hopes to pronounce the singular and plural forms of nouns correctly, the singular 3d form of verbs , the past tense form and past participles of English regular verbs.
One of the important phonetic phenomena- sound interchange- is another linguistation of the connection of phonetics with grammar
Phonetics is connected with lexicology due to the presence of stress in the right place that we can distinguish certain nouns from verbs.
Phonetics is connected with stylistics through intonation and its components. Speech melody, utterance stress, rhythm , position and voice tembre which serves to express emotions to distinguish between different attitudes on the part of the author and speaker. Very often the writer helps the reader to interpret his ideas through special words and remarks such as: a pause, a short pause, angrily, gently and so on
Phonetics is also connected with stylistics through repetition of words, phrases and sounds.
Phonetics is connected with linguistic sciences , points to its importance from both a theoretical and practical point of view.
3. The phonetic system of language. Its parts and units
The phonetic system of language is a set of phonetic units arranged in an orderly way to replace each other in a given framework. Phonetics is divided into two major components (or systems): segmental phonetics, which is concerned with individual sounds (i.e. "segments" of speech) and suprasegmental phonetics dealing with the larger units of connected speech: syllables, words, phrases and texts.
1. Segmental units are sounds of speech (vowels and consonants) which form the vocalic and consonantal systems;
2. Suprasegmental, or prosodic, units are syllables, accentual (rhythmic) units, intonation groups, utterances, which form the subsystem of pitch, stress, rhythm, tempo, pauses.
Now we may define phonetics as a branch of linguistics that studies speech sounds in the broad sense, comprising segmental sounds, suprasegmental units and prosodic phenomena (pith, stress, tempo, rhythm, pauses).
Let us consider the four components of the phonetic system of language.
The first and the basic component of the phonetic structure of language is the system of its segmental phonemes existing in the material form of their allophones. The phonemic component has 3 aspects, or manifestations:
1. the system of its phonemes as discrete isolated units;
2. the distribution of the allophones of the phonemes;
3. the methods of joining speech sounds together in words and at their junction, or the methods of effecting VC, CV, CC, and VV transitions.
The second component is the syllabic structure of words. The syllabic structure has two aspects, which are inseparable from each other: syllable formation and syllable division.
The third component is the accentual structure of words as items of vocabulary (i.e. as pronounced in isolation). The accentual structure of words has three aspects: the physical (acoustic) nature of word accent; the position of the accent in disyllabic and polysyllabic words; the degrees of word accent.
The fourth component of the phonetic system is the intonational structure of utterances. The four components of the phonetic system of language (phonemic, syllabic, accentual and intonational) all constitute its pronunciation (in the broad sense of the term).
3) Classification of English speech sounds