IX. Write down sentences with the following idioms.
VIII.Write down the forms of the irregular verbs.
VII. Make the sentences negative.
1. Goods and services are sold by retailers to the final consumer.
2. Retailing classifications have been blurred with the development of discount houses.
3. Many drugstores look like small department stores.
4. Retailing ranges from highly impersonal vending machines to small specialty shops.
5. All your needs can be met under one roof.
6. Some supermarkets have a florist, an optometrist and a barber shop.
7. Retailers fulfilling consumer wants will prosper.
To see, to buy, to understand, to take, to forget, to put, to read, to sell, to bring, to set.
1. Put all one’s eggs in one basket – Поставить все на карту
2. Leave no stone unturned – Ни перед чем не останавливаясь
Advertising requires the talents of people in many different kinds of jobs. Advertising managers direct the advertising programs of the business for which they work. They determine the size of the advertising budget, the types of ads and the media to use, and what advertising agency, if any, to employ.
Account executives are employed by advertising agencies to develop advertising programs for client firms and individuals. They first study the client’s sales, public image, and advertising problems, and then create a program that suits the client’s needs.
Research directors and their assistants study the market. They review possible uses for the product sold, compare its advantages or disadvantages with those of competitors, and suggest ways of reaching potential buyers.
Advertising copywriters create the headlines, slogans, and text that attract buyers. Artists and layout workers plan and create visual effects in advertisements. Media directors negotiate contracts for advertising space or air time. Production managers and their assistants arrange to have ads printed for publication, filmed for television, or recorded for radio. They must know which firms or freelance workers will be able to produce the best ads for the least cost.
Sales promotionlinks personal selling and advertising to make each more effective. Personal selling aims at specific customers, and advertising is directed at large numbers of potential consumers. The function of sales promotion is to fill the gap between these extremes by focusing selling efforts on selected small groups. Targets of sales promotion efforts may be the enterprise’s own sales wholesalers, retailers or consumers. Sales promotion includes preparing displays and other sales aids, developing materials for training sales personnel, and conducting contests and premium programs for customers.
An example of sales promotion effort directed at the sales force is a sales contest with all-expense paid trips for winners to different places. Sales promotions aimed at consumers may give away free samples of toothpaste or soap or bonus trading stamps. Popular promotional devices include giving away specialty items such as pens, balloons, or calendars with the name and address of the advertiser. Another promotional approach is to have manufacturers’ representatives come into the retail store to give demonstrations of new foods, cosmetics, or fashions.