Commentary and notes to the text
1. wholesaler ['həulˌseɪlə] оптовик, оптовый торговец
2. retailer ['riːteɪlə] розничный торговец, лавочник
3. consumer [kən'sjuːmə] потребитель
4. manufacturer [ˌmænjə'fækʧ(ə)rə] изготовитель, производитель
5. insurance [ɪn'ʃuər(ə)n(t)s] страхование
6. household ['haushəuld] семейство, семья;(домашнее) хозяйство
7. necessity [nə'sesətɪ] необходимость, настоятельная потребность
8. advertisement[əd'vɜːtɪsmənt]/ объявление; реклама; анонс, извещение
9. capital goods [ʹkæpıtlʹgudz] средства производства ; основной капитал
10. relay [riː'leɪ] передавать, транслировать (по радио, телевидению); отправлять, пересылать, посылать (сообщение, информацию)
11. earn [ɜːn] зарабатывать, получать доход, прибыль
II. Answer the following questions:
1. How is distribution done?
2. Direct sales are the common method of sales for capital goods of high value or machine tools, aren’t they?
3. What is the distribution chain?
4. Does retail mail order take two forms?
5. What will the method of distribution chosen depend upon?
6. How do many manufacturers distribute their products?
7. Why do managers of retail operations often have little knowledge of their customers’ attitudes, opinions, and preferences?
8. Do sales clerks and other store personnel relay customers’ comments to their managers?
9. Manufacturers, retailers, and suppliers of all kind of services need certain kinds of information in order to be able to satisfy their customers’ wants and needs, don’t they?
1. person, personal, personality, personally;
2. manufacturer, manufactory, manufacture, manufacturable;
3. to limit, unlimited, limitation, limiting, limitless.
IV. Fill in the gaps with proper prepositions: of, by, with, in, from, to, upon, through.
1. Products are sold directly … the producer … the consumer.
2.Insurance is often sold … agents such as banks and … brokers.
3. The distribution chain usually consists … the producer, wholesaler, retailer and consumer.
4. Contact is made with the customer by display advertisements … the press and magazines.
5. The method of distribution will depend … the type of market.
6. Many manufacturers have little direct contact … the retailers of their products.
7. The marketing managers are separated from their final consumers … geographical distance.
8. Manufacturers, retailers, and suppliers need certain kinds … information in order to be able to satisfy their customers’ wants and needs.
V. Fill in the gaps with “some, any, no”.
1… manufacturers distribute their products through their own sales personnel.
2.There were … economics journals on table.
3.Producers need … information in order to satisfy their customers’ wants and needs.
4.A retailer has … contact with potential customers, who might become customers.
5.Did you see … people in the office?
6.I haven’t got … money with me.
7.The manager told them … news.
8.There weren’t … goods in the warehouse.
VI. Translate sentences paying attention to the word “earn”.
1. He now earns £250,000 a year.
2. Henceforth he would earn his bread in the sweat of his face.
3. He earns interest on rates.
4. The deposit currently earns £710 per annum .
5. Palm oil earned Malaysia some £344 million in 1979.
6. She earns great esteem among her colleagues.
7. Bill earned the reputation of a good engineer.
8. They earned a good rest.
VII.Put questions to the parts of the sentences given in bold type.
1.Products are sold directly from the producer to the consumer.
2.The supplier uses an agent to channel his goods.
3.Insurance is often sold through agents such as banks and through brokers.
4.Retail mail order takes two forms.
5.The method of distribution will depend upon the type of market.
6.The marketing managers in firms are separated from their final consumers by geographical distance.
7.Many manufacturers have little direct contact with the retailers.