Mount Everest, 29,002 feet high, is situated on the border of Tibet and Nepal. Since the end of the nineteenth century climbers have been ambitious to conquer Everest and stand on the highest point of land in the world. On Friday, 29 May 1953, two members of the British Everest Expedition succeeded in reaching the top. They were the first men known to have done so.
Before the successful climb of 1953 there had been many other expeditions. The first attempts were made from the north, after permission had been obtained from the ruler of Tibet. The first expeditions were organized jointly by the Alpine Club and the Royal Geographical Society. The aim of the 1921 expedition was to examine the mountain and the surrounding area, and find a route by which a later expedition might hope to reach the top. The climbers were successful in mapping possible routes up the mountain from the north, the north-east, and the north-west. One of them, George Mallory, reached a height of over 24,000 feet, and was able to see an immense valley on the south-west side of the mountain. It was from this valley that the climb was made in 1953. The expedition of 1924 again approached the mountain from the north. Two of the climbers, Mallory and Irvine, set up a camp at 26,800 feet. From this camp they sent back a message saying that the weather was good and that they hoped to reach the top and get back to their tent the next day. They were seen the next afternoon through a break in the clouds at a height of about 28,230 feet. They did not return to their tent, and the weather made it impossible for other climbers to go to their help. It is impossible to know whether they got to the top. Mallory’s ice-axe was found nine years later by members of another expedition.
After the end of the Second World War, Everest expeditions, unable to enter Tibet, had to start from Nepal. In 1951 a British expedition, led by Eric Shipton, found a way into the immense valley to the south-west of the mountain, the valley that had been seen in the distance by Mallory thirty years earlier. In the following year Swiss climbers again entered this valley, and proved that from it there was a route that might be followed to the top of the mountain. The exploration and map-making of these earlier expeditions were of the greatest value to the men who won success in 1953.
Snow and ice are not the climber’s greatest enemies on Everest. Climbers in the Alps learnt long ago how to overcome the dangers of snow and ice. One of the greatest difficulties on Everest is the effect on the human body and mind of making any kind of effort at such immense heights. On the last thousand feet of Everest, between 28,000 and 29,000 feet, the amount of oxygen in the air is only about one-third of the amount at sea-level. The latest expeditions have taken with them supplies of artificial oxygen. This helped them to reach the top, even though the weight of the apparatus was an extra burden.
Another very serious difficulty is the climate. There are only two very short periods each year when climbing is possible. These are the three weeks before and after the summer monsoon. This monsoon is the season, during which the south-west wind blows from the Indian Ocean, bringing rain to India, and covering the Himalayas with deep soft snow. After the monsoon the days are short. The three-weeks before mid-June, therefore, are the best for making the attempt.
Members of Everest expeditions must acclimatize themselves. They must get used to the thin air of the Himalayan heights. They do this by spending as many weeks as possible in the high mountain country. They must also test and get used to the oxygen apparatus.
The leader of the 1953 expedition was Colonel John Hunt. He chose eleven men to go with him as climbers: eight from Britain, two from New Zealand, and one man, Tenzing Norkay, a Sherpa, who had been with the Swiss expedition in 1952. Tenzing was a professional mountaineer from Darjeeling in India. The Sherpas are a tribe of hillmen who live in the valleys of northern Nepal. For more than fifty years they have been employed as porters for Himalayan expeditions.
It was in early March that the members of the expedition reached Katmandu, the capital of Nepal. From Katmandu to Everest is 150 miles of rough, mountainous country. There are no good roads, so the long journey had to be made on foot. A large number of porters were needed to carry the expedition’s supplies.
When the expedition left Katmandu, the party numbered more than 350. The inarch to the place where the rear base was to be set up took 16 days. Each night tents were put up near a village. At the end of the journey, as the party turned a corner on the winding path, they saw Everest in front of them.
1. Where is the mount Everest situated?
2. When did the first men succeed in reaching the top?
3. Were any expeditions organized before? What was their aim?
4. Why didn’t two of the climbers, Mallory and Irvine, of the expedition of 1924, return to
5. Were the exploration and map-making of these earlier expeditions of the greatest value to
the men who won success in 1953? Why?
6. What serious difficulty is about the climate in the Himalayas?
7. Who are the Sherpas?
8. How long did it take get to the place where the rear base was to be set up?
1.Соедините соответствующие словосочетания
| 1. border
|| a) put up a tent or tents
| 2. expedition
|| b) the kind of weather in a place (over a period of time).
| 3. mountaineer
|| c) what is found to be the result.
| 4. the surrounding area
|| d) one who earns money by helping other persons to climb mountains
| 5. the effect
|| e) line that divides two countries; land near this line
| 6. climate
|| f) the area (land) all round the mountain
| 7. set up a camp
|| g) journey made with a special purpose;
| 8. to explore
|| h) persons who live among hills and mountains
| 9. professional mountaineer
|| i) person who climbs mountains;
| 10. hillmen
|| j) travel into or through an unknown country, a part of a country in order to earn about it.
2. Вставьте правильные предлоги или наречия. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. If you are not sure how to spell a word, look it … in the dictionary. 2. Who’s going to look …… the dog while you’re on holiday? 3. I can’t wait for the camping trip, I’m really looking …… it. 4. Tracy has lost her keys. She’s been looking …. them all the morning. 5. When we were young, my grandmother used to look …. us at the weekends. 6. Excuse me. I’m looking …. Mount Street. Could you tell me where it is? 7. I don’t remember Lisa’s address. Let’s look it … in the phone book. 8. Ted has got a dentist’s appointment on Monday. But he isn’t looking … it at all.
3. Вставьте вместо пропусков необходимый артикль.
1. There are more water than land on our … planet. 2. … largest and … deepest ocean in … world is … Pacific, then comes … Atlantic. 3. …. Indian ocean is only … little smaller. 4. … smallest ocean is … Arctic. 4. … river is in … world is … Mississippi. 5. … largest sea is … Mediterranean, … deepest lake is … Lake Baikal. 6. Large masses of … land are called … continents. 7. They are … Europe and … Asia, … North and … South America, … Africa, … Australia and … Antarctica. 8. There are mountain chains in many parts of … world. 9. Some of them such as … Urals are old, others like … Caucasus are much younger. 10. … highest mountain chain, which is called … Himalayas, is situated in … Asia.
4. Прочитайте следующие глаголы и существительные, определите способ словообразования. Поставьте ударение в двусложных словах. Переведите слова на русский язык.
to export – exports, to work – work, to play – a play, to import – imports, an increase – to increase, to present – a present, a contrast – to contrast, to contact – a contact, to walk – a walk, to comfort – a comfort
5. Измените прямую речь в косвенную, соблюдая правило согласования времён.
1. 1. He said, “I will be taken to London soon.” 2. My brother said, “My friend does not speak German at all.” 3. He said, “There are a lot of green trees in the South, aren’t there?” 4. Steve said, “I knew my friend would play football.” 5. Mary said, “I have to leave now because my mother needs my help.” 6. Nick said, “Let’s go to the cinema, Mike.” 7. He asked me, “Where do you think Ben will go for holidays?” 8. Mother said to me, “Go and buy some bread.” 9. He said to me, “Pete will enter the University when he leaves school.” 9. William said, “I was calling you the whole day.” 11. Fred asked me, “What foreign languages were taught at your University?”
6. Поставьте глаголы в Past Perfect Tense или в Past Continuous Tense
1. When we (finish) dinner, Susan took the dishes away. 2. The tower clock chimed two o’clock while Aunt Polly (eat) her dinner. 4. As Mike (walk) the street, Mr. Brown went by. 5. I remembered Tom (bring) a box of chocolate for you. 6. The dog opened its mouth, just as if it (talk). 7. Peter told us he (buy) two new suits. 8. While the soldiers (march), the rain began to fall. 9. John said to me that he (ask) a friend to come for a chat. 10. I did not know Shakespeare (write) more than thirty plays. 11. The children (work) hard yesterday morning.
7. Употребите глагол, данный в скобках, в нужном времени. Устно переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. If I (to find) the book, I will give it to you. 2. It is high time they (to arrive) in Moscow. 3. It is time he (to visit) his parents. 4. She looks as if she (to be) ill for a long time. 5. Ben speaks to her as though they (to know) each other since their childhood. 6. The child looks as if he (to cry) long. 7. I wish I (to be) here yesterday. 8. I wish we (to leave) home earlier yesterday. 9. If the train (to be) late, we won’t be able arrive in time. 10. If he (to know) English better, he would translate the article without difficulty. 11. If I (to know) her well, I would have spoken to her. 12. If we (to leave) right away, we could be there in an hour. 13. If he (to drive) slowly, you won’t have any accidents. 14. If you (to study) harder last year, you would have passed your English exam well.
8. Письменно переведите на русский язык предложения, обратите внимание на различное лексическое значение модальных глаголов.
1. The girl was told that she need not take the trouble. 2. That old man used to be very strong in his youth. 3. The knife won’t cut! 4. Life is easier nowadays than it used to be centuries ago. 5. Won’t you take off your overcoat? 6. Granddad used to swim a lot before he got old. 7. Shall he wait for you? 8. He used to be able to speak Spanish, but he has forgotten it now. 9. Why should she be frightened? 10. No one dared speak to him since. 11. Will you pass me the sugar, please? 12. He would smoke a pipe before going to bed. 13. How dare he come here? 14. Must the students do this task now? – No, they needn’t. They needn’t do it now. 15. Income tax would certainly be raised. 16. He shall regret about this, he shall! 17. Laura should go on a diet. She should see a doctor about this problem. 18. He daren’t even look at me after it.
9. Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1. Мы читали эту книгу. Она очень интересная. 2. Я вернулась домой, поужинала и начала читать газету. Я читала газету уже полчаса к тому времени, когда пришла мама. 3. К её приходу я прочитала уже две главы. 4. Не входите в офис. Директор обсуждает новый план с инженерами сейчас. 5. Завтра к этому времени они приедут в Сочи. 6. Стив уже давно разговаривает по телефону. 7. Этот художник закончил вторую картину и сейчас он пишет третью. Он работает над картиной уже год. Я думаю, что к концу будущего года он ее закончит. 8. Почтальон принес телеграмму. Генри ждёт её уже несколько дней. 9. Завтра я буду писать очерк (essay) по этой теме (on this subject). 10. Завтра в 10 часов утра мы будем писать сочинение на эту тему. 11. Вчера в это время профессор Смит проверял тесты своих студентов.
10. Дайте дефиниции следующим глаголам письменно по-английски:
make; make use of, make breakfast, make fun, make fun of, make way, make a bed, make room, make up, make a fuss of
11. Употребите глагол в скобках в нужном времени страдательного залога, соблюдая правило согласования времён.
1. I asked my friend why he (not to be shown) to the doctor. 2. Robert asked me what language (to be taught) at school. 3. They said the main properties (to be determined) when the experiment (to be finished). 4. Father said that all the necessary information (to be stored) in the computer now. 5. The editor said that my poems (to be published) by the end of the year. 6. The professor said that the positive results (to be obtained) when a new device was installed. 7. He wondered if a lot of fruit trees (to be grown) in our garden. 8. He asked me if I (to be informed) Ben (to be sent) for New York. 9. George explained that his mother (to be taken) to hospital. 10. Henry said that his daughter (to be interested) in music since her childhood.
12. Устно переведите следующие пары предложений и определите, какой частью речи являются выделенные слова:
1. a) They wanted to find the most gifted children. b) He was gifted by nature with great talent to write poetry. 2. a) Heat brings about many changes in materials. b) Any material changes when it is heated. 3. a) These works of art belong to the famous painter. b) She works at school. 4. a) Water can freeze and become solid. b) Iron is a solid. 5. a) A deaf child studies literature with his parents. b) Serious reasons changed his results in these studies.
КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 4
Методические рекомендации по выполнению контрольной работы.
Перед выполнением контрольной работы проработайте по учебнику следующие грамматические темы:
1. Модальные глаголы с перфектной формой смыслового глагола и особенности перевода их на русский язык (could have done, must have done,should have done,would have done, may have been doing).
2. Неличные формы глагола, общее понятие: Infinitive, Gerund, Participle I, Participle II.
3. Основные функции инфинитива в предложении: подлежащее, часть сказуемого, определение, обстоятельство.
4. Простая и сложные формы инфинитива, их значение: non-Perfect Active Infinitive; non-Perfect Passive Infinitive; Continuous Active Infinitive; Perfect Active Infinitive; Perfect Passive Infinitive; Perfect Continuous Active Infinitive.
3. Сложные инфинитивные конструкции: сложное подлежащее (Сomplex Subject), сложное дополнение (Complex Object), особенности перевода сложных инфинитивных конструкций на русский язык.
4. Основные функции Participle I и Participle II в предложении: определение, обстоятельство и часть сказуемого.
5. Простая и сложные формы Participle I: non-Perfect Active Participle I; non-Perfect Passive Participle I; Perfect Active Participle I; Perfect Passive Participle I, их значение.
6. Сложные причастные конструкции. Сложное дополнение (Complex Object).
7. Определительный причастный оборот, его место в предложении.
8. Обстоятельственные причастные обороты места, времени, причины; особенности их употребления.
9. Независимый (самостоятельный) причастный оборот.
10. Герундий (The Gerund), простая форма герундия, её функции в предложении.
11. Простая и сложные формы герундия: non-Perfect Active Gerund; non-Perfect Passive Gerund; Perfect Active Gerund; Perfect Passive Gerund, их значение.
12. Герундиальный оборот, его функции в предложении и способы перевода на русский язык.
Рекомендуемая литература для самостоятельной работы
1. К. Н. Качалова, Е.Е. Израилевич. Практическая грамматика английского языка.
2. A. J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet. A Practical English Grammar
ПЕРВЫЙ ВАРИАНТ КОНТРОЛЬНОГО ЗАДАНИЯ №4
1. Прочитайте текст и письменно ответьте по-английски на вопросы, следующие за текстом.
(Mrs. Ada Harris, a charwoman from London, comes to New York in search of a Mr. G. Brown)
“Go to work, Ada ‘Arris,’ she said to herself and thereafter on her afternoons and evenings off, and in every moment of her spare time, she initiated a systematic run-through of the G. Browns listed in the telephone directories of Manhattan, Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, and Richmond.
Familiar with the London tubes, the New York subway systems held no terrors for her, but the buses were something else again, and, used to London civility, she soon found herself embroiled with one of the occupational neurotics at the helm of one of the northbound monsters who, trying to make change, operate his money-gobbling gadget, open and close doors, shout out street numbers, and guide his vehicle through the tightly packed lanes of Yellow Cabs, limousines, and two-toned cars, bawled at her to get to the rear of the bus or get the hell off, he didn’t care which.
In a short time Mrs. Harris both saw and learned more about New York and New Yorkers and the environs of its five boroughs the most New Yorkers who had spent a lifetime in that city.
There was a George Brown who lived near Fort George in Upper Manhattan not far from the Hudson, and for the first time Mrs. Harris came upon the magnificent view of that stately river, and through another who dwelt near Spuyten Duyvil she learned something of this astonishing, meandering creek which joined the Hudson and East rivers and actually and physically made an island of Manhattan.
A visit to another Brown at the exactly opposite end of Manhattan, Bowling Green, introduced her to the Battery, that incredible plaza overwhelmed by the skyscrapers of the financial district, at the end of which the two mighty arms of water — East and North rivers, as the Hudson is there called — merged into the expanse of the Upper Bay with such seagoing traffic of ocean liners, freighters, tugs, ferryboats, yachts, and whatnot afloat as Mrs. Harris could not have imagined occupied one body of water.
For the first time in her life Mrs. Harris felt dwarfed and overpowered. London was a great, gray, sprawling city, but it did not make one feel so small, so insignificant, and so lost. What kind of a world was this? Who were these people who had reared these towers? Through the canyons rushed and rumbled the traffic of heavy drays, trucks, and gigantic double lorries with trailers, taxicabs beeped their horns, policemen’s whistles shrilled, the shipping moaned and hooted — and in the midst of this stood little Ada Harris of Battersea, alone, not quite undaunted. In the district surrounding 135th Street and Lenox Avenue, known as Harlem, all the Browns were chocolate colored, but nonetheless sympathetic to Mrs. Harris’s quest. Several of them had been to England with the Army or Air Force and welcomed Mrs. Harris as a reminder of a time and place when all men were considered equal under Nazi bombs, and color was no bar to bravery.
She learned to like many parts of Brooklyn, where her search took her, for the older and quieter portions of this borough on the other side of the East River, where the brown-stone houses stuck against the side of one another, as like as peas in a pod for block upon block, sometimes shaded by trees, reminded her somewhat of London far away across the sea.
On a visit to the Staten Island George Browns via the Staten Island Ferry, Mrs. Harris found one of them to be a tugboat captain. That Captain Brown invited Mrs. Harris to come aboard his tug and he would take her for a water-borne ride around Manhattan Island. This she accepted with alacrity, and thereafter was sailed beneath the spans of the great East River bridges, past the glass-walled buildings of the United Nations.
Few native New Yorkers ever penetrated so deeply into their city as did Mrs. Harris, who ranged from the homes of the wealthy on the broad avenues neighboring Central Park, where there was light and air and the indefinable smell of the rich, to the crooked downtown streets and the slums of the Bowery and Lower East Side.
Thus in a month of tireless searching the George Browns of the metropolitan district provided her with a cross section of the American people. By large they were friendly, warmhearted, and hospitable. Most of them were so eager to be helpful. She discovered about them a curious paradox : on their streets they were filled with such hurry and bustle that they had no time for anyone, not even to stop for a stranger inquiring the way — they simply hurried on, unseeing, unhearing. But in their homes they were kind, and particularly generous hosts.