The rear base was about 20 miles south of Everest. Here most of the porters were sent back, but many of the Sherpas were kept to carry supplies to the camps that must be set up at places between this base and the last camp near the summit. The climbers spent the first fortnight in the mountainous area near the rear base. This was for the purpose of acclimatization. They also had to test the oxygen apparatus again and again, and to get used to breathing through it. If it went wrong, if any part of it was out of order, death might follow. The Sherpas porters also had to learn how to use the apparatus. Both climbers and porters had to get used to climbing with large oxygen cylinders strapped to their backs as well as heavy loads of food and clothing.
From the rear base the members of the party had to make their way up a valley. The upper part of this valley becomes the glacier of Khumbu, and on this glacier was one of the most difficult parts of the route to the summit. This was a wall of broken ice called the Khumbu ice-fall. The Swiss expedition had climbed this in the previous year, but the ice-fall had changed, and a new way had to be found up this rough wall of dangerous ice.
A base camp was set up on the glacier at about 18,000 feet. More of the porters were now sent back, and only 34 of the Sherpas stayed behind with the climbers. These men had the hard work of carrying supplies to still higher camps. A party of climbers found a way up the ice-fall. A route to the top was made for the porters by placing ropes or rope ladders in dangerous places, and light metal ladders across wide breaks in the ice.
Camp Two was set up half-way up the ice-fall, and Camp Three at the top. By the end of April the climbers had reached the high valley that Mallory had seen 32 years earlier, and that members of the Swiss Expedition had entered the previous year. The highest point of Everest, the North Summit, was to the north, and to the east was the South Col, 26,000 feet high, which must be reached before the final attempt on Everest could be made.
Colonel Hunt and some of his companions, now using oxygen, explored the rocky walls of this valley. Camp Four had been set up in the northern side of the valley. Three more camps were set up between Camp Four and the South Col. Hunt had chosen four men to make the final attempt. The other climbers and porters had the work of helping them to get supplies as high as possible. Parties of men made their way up the ice-fall. Tents, sleeping-bags, food, cookers, oxygen cylinders — all had to be carried up for use in the higher camps. Portable radio sets, or ‘walkie-talkies’, were used by those in the higher camps to tell those in the lower camps of their needs.
Towards the end of May Camp Eight had been set up successfully on the South Col. Of the 360 porters who had set out from Katmandu, only 19 were now with the climbers. On 26 May Colonel Hunt and three others left Camp Eight and made a difficult climb to a height of 27,350 feet. On the way they passed, at about 27,200 feet, the point where the Swiss guide Lambert and the Sherpas Tenzing Norkay had passed a terrible night on 28 May in the previous year, the night before their attempt on the summit Hunt and his companions left supplies there for the next party. Two days later, the New Zealander Hillary, and the Sherpas Tenzing Norkay, with three others, left the South Col to find a site for the last camp.
The way was very steep and difficult, and each climber was carrying about 60 lb. The supplies left by Hunt’s party two days earlier were found and picked up. Finally, at 27,900 feet, a site for Camp Nine was chosen. A tent was set up, Hillary and Tenzing remained there, and the three others went down to Camp Eight on the South Col.
During the night Hillary and Tenzing had a short sleep, helped by a little oxygen. The temperature inside the tent was minus 27 degrees Centigrade. At six o’clock they left the tent and started out in calm, clear weather. They took it in turns to cut in the ice and so make a path. At nine o’clock the men watching from the South Col saw the two climbers on the South Summit, a point about 500 feet below the North Summit. Then they were hidden from view.
Higher and higher the two men climbed, roped together. Each step forward needed an immense effort of body and mind. At 11.30 on the morning of 29 May 1953, they stood on the Summit of Everest. The success of the 1953 expedition was a triumph for its members, but it was a triumph that was shared by members of all previous expeditions. It was the experience, won by hard effort of earlier climbers, including those of the Swiss expedition of 1952, that made success possible in 1953.
1. How far was the rear base?
2. Why did the climbers spend the first fortnight in the mountainous area near the rear base?
3. Where was one of the most difficult parts of the route to the summit?
4. How was a route to the top made for the porters?
5. Which highest points of Everest must be reached before the final attempt on Everest
could be made?
6. What supplies did the climbers need?
7. At what height was a site for Camp Nine chosen?
8. When did the members of the expedition stand on the Summit of Everest?
1. Соедините соответствующие словосочетания
1. base a) could no longer be seen (hidden, p.p. of hide)
2. rear base b) that can be carried about; not heavy
3. summit c) French word for pass, narrow way over or through mountains.
4. fortnight d) that which is farthest from the point which the expedition hopes to reach
5. glacier e) place at which large supplies are kept
6. Col f) highest point; top
7. portable g) fourteen days
8. were hidden from view h) river of ice, formed by snow, moving slowly along a valley
2. Употребите инфинитив, данный в скобках, в составе сложного дополнения. Переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. Nobody noticed us (to leave) the room.
2. We heard the professor (to speak) about that student’s progress.
3. They wanted the device (to be examined) carefully by experts.
4. He asked the worker (to show) him the instruments.
5. I want this problem (to be solved) as quick as possible.
3. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на сложное подлежащее.
1. William is likely to be given this work. 2. The match proved to be final. 3. Electric current is known to flow in metal parts. 4. The solution of this problem is said not to be easy. 5. Many new houses are planned to be built in our city. 6. This important problem is sure to be settled very soon. 7. Tsiolkovsky is known to have developed the theory of rocket flying
4. Письменно переведите на русский язык предложения, обратите внимание модальное сказуемое.
1. Granddad must have been working since morning. 2. They might have forgotten to send us a telegram. 2. We needn’t have done all the work. 3. Your shoes are wet. You should have stayed at home. 4. No one could have done more than you did. 5. He needn’t have stayed there for the night. 6. Mike was to have finished everything yesterday, but he was called away to London unexpectedly. 7. The students must have been writing the composition for three hour already. 8. Could he have done it? 9. “Ann is my sister.” “I should have guessed. You take after her.” 10. Surely I ought to have been aware of that simple fact. 11. “You needn’t have stayed up, waiting for me,” said Angela. 12. You needn’t have troubled. 13. There was no one meeting me at the station as I was to have arrived two days before. 14. She must not have taken the magazine with her. 15. They should never have married. They are so unhappy.
6. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на
1. This scientist achieved great results by working hard at the problem. 2. Solving difficult problems is his favourite occupation. 3. We remember having been told about the different points of view on this theory. 4. I remember having obtained these data in our previous experiments. 5. There are two different methods of solving this problem. 6. I remember having seen this device at our plant. 7. We were surprised at hearing that he had refused to take part in the scientific conference.
7. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык. Подчеркните независимый причастный оборот:
1. The translation having been done, we went for a short walk. 2. College courses finished, all the Russia’s graduates hope to get work according to their speciality. 3. The new methods having been introduced, the productivity of labour at the plant went up. 4. There is always water vapour in the air, the amount depending upon various conditions. 5. Technical and scientific problems having been solved, the first space flight could be realized. 6. It being very late, we had to return home.
8. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на форму причастий:
1. The workers having refused to return to work, the manager dismissed them from the plant. 2. Holiday accommodation and facilities being cheap, all the students can spend their vacation in camps and rest homes. 3. The man reading near the window is our teacher of English. 4. Having seen so little of the country, he could not give full answers to all your questions. 5. And saying so he left the room. 6. Having arrived two days before the opening of the conference, they had enough time to do the city. 7. Knowing how fond he is of good music, I brought him a few records.
9. Замените следующие предложения восклицательными, употребляя what, what a, how
Образцы: 1) She plays the piano well. – How well she plays the piano! 2) It is a beautiful day. – What a beautiful day!
1. They have learned English very quickly. 2. She has good taste in everything. 3. We are having beautiful weather now. 4. It must have been a very interesting experience.
10. Поставьте частицу to, где это необходимо.
1. Look here, Jane, why .. be cross? 2. You seem … know these places very well. 3. Will you help me … move the table, please? 4. He is expected … arrive in a few days. 5. You needn’t … ask for permission, I’ll let you … take my books whenever you like. 6. I heard the door … open and saw a shadow … move across the floor. 7. He told me … try … do it once again. 8. I’d rather … walk a little before going to bed. 9. She was not able … explain anything. 10. You ought not … show your feelings. 11. Why not … wait a little longer? 12. He is not … blame. 13. I felt her … shiver with cold. 14. We should love you … stay with us. 15. You are not … mention this to anyone. 16. We got Mother … cut up some sandwiches. 17. Rose wanted them ... stop laughing, wanted the curtain … come down. 18. I’ll have … go there. 19. There doesn’t seem … be anything wrong with you. 20. She helped me … get over my fear. 21. The teacher made me … repeat it all again. 22. He was heard … say so. 23. What made you … deceive me? 24. There is nothing … do but … wait till somebody comes … let us out. 25. You had better … make a note of it.
ЧЕТВЁРТЫЙ ВАРИАНТ КОНТРОЛЬНОГО ЗАДАНИЯ №4
1. Прочитайте текст и письменно ответьте по-английски на вопросы, следующие за текстом.