Студопедия

КАТЕГОРИИ:


Архитектура-(3434)Астрономия-(809)Биология-(7483)Биотехнологии-(1457)Военное дело-(14632)Высокие технологии-(1363)География-(913)Геология-(1438)Государство-(451)Демография-(1065)Дом-(47672)Журналистика и СМИ-(912)Изобретательство-(14524)Иностранные языки-(4268)Информатика-(17799)Искусство-(1338)История-(13644)Компьютеры-(11121)Косметика-(55)Кулинария-(373)Культура-(8427)Лингвистика-(374)Литература-(1642)Маркетинг-(23702)Математика-(16968)Машиностроение-(1700)Медицина-(12668)Менеджмент-(24684)Механика-(15423)Науковедение-(506)Образование-(11852)Охрана труда-(3308)Педагогика-(5571)Полиграфия-(1312)Политика-(7869)Право-(5454)Приборостроение-(1369)Программирование-(2801)Производство-(97182)Промышленность-(8706)Психология-(18388)Религия-(3217)Связь-(10668)Сельское хозяйство-(299)Социология-(6455)Спорт-(42831)Строительство-(4793)Торговля-(5050)Транспорт-(2929)Туризм-(1568)Физика-(3942)Философия-(17015)Финансы-(26596)Химия-(22929)Экология-(12095)Экономика-(9961)Электроника-(8441)Электротехника-(4623)Энергетика-(12629)Юриспруденция-(1492)Ядерная техника-(1748)

I Formation of the English national Language




Читайте также:
  1. A Contribution of Borrowed Elements into English
  2. A list of major international wire services.
  3. A Survey of Current Works on English and American Lexicography in This Country
  4. African American Vernacular English
  5. Ambiguity can be defined as the property of language units to bear several different meanings (semantic as well as grammatical).
  6. AMERICAN ENGLISH
  7. Antagonist ligands work by inducing a conformation of the receptor which prevents coactivator and promotes corepressor binding.
  8. Arabic Words in English
  9. Aspects of the language
  10. Back-formation (reversion)
  11. Back-Formation or Reversion
  12. Barriers in Community Language Learning

Middle English

Lecture 5

We can speak about the English National Language as a language understood and mainly used throughout the country beginning with late Middle English – Early New English. They generally say that the end of the Middle English period and the beginning of New English is marked by the following events in the life of the English people:

1.The end of the war between the White and the Red Rose – 1485 and the establishment of an absolute monarchy on the British soil with Henry Tudor as the first absolute monarch – the political expression of the English nation.

The War of the Roses ( 1455 – 1485 ) was the most important event of the 15th century which marked the decay of feudalism and the birth of a new social order. It signified the rise of an absolute monarchy in England and political centralization, and consequently a linguistic centralization leading to a predominance of the national language over local dialects.

2. The introduction of printing – 1477 by William Caxton ( 1422 – 1490 ).Printing was invented in Germany by Johan Gutenberg in 1438. It quickly spread to other countries and England was among them. The first English printing office was founded in 1476 by William Caxton, and in 1477 there appeared the first book to be printed in England called The Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers .The appearance of considerable number of printed books contributed to the normalization of spelling and grammar forms fostering the choice of a single variant over others. William Caxton established a printing-press at Westminster, from which he issued a stream of books, many of them translated from Latin and French by himself. Caxton, a native of Kent, acquired the London dialect, and made a conscious choice from among competing variants, which he even described in a preface to one of his translations, saying that he had submitted it to princess Margaret, a sister of the king, and “anon she found a default in my English which she commanded me to amend”.

Since that time – the end of the 15th century the English language began its development as the language of the English nation, whereas up to that time, beginning with the Germanic conquest of Britain in the 5th century and up to the 15th century , what we call the English language was no more than a conglomerate of dialects, first tribal and then local. Indeed, a notable feature of the Middle English period is the dialectical variety that finds expression in the written documents. It was only late in the 14th century that the London dialect, itself a mixture of the southern and south-eastern dialects, began to emerge as dominant type.



 

Thus, the English national language was formed on the basis of the London dialect which was uppermost among Middle English dialects due to the political, geographical, economic and “linguistic “position of London which became the capital of England already in the 11th century – before the Norman conquest and which was in the 15th century a thriving economic centre and port of England due to its geographical position near the estuary of the largest river in England. The geographical position of London as a port and city in the centre of the country where people of the North mingled with the people of the South, on the one hand, enabled the Londoners to acquire features of both southern and northern dialects, and on the other hand, the people coming to London helped to spread he London dialect all over the country.

The importance of the London dialect as the foundation of the English national language grew also because of the fact that that many of the best writers o the 14th-15th centuries, and Geoffrey Chaucer among them, whose poetry achieved tremendous contemporary prestige and popularity, were Londoners or used the London dialect in their writings. As we have said, the 15th century is generally referred to as the time of the beginning of the English national language. But the literary norm of the language was established later, already in Early New English, many English authors of the forthcoming centuries contributing to it, among them such as Edmund Spencer, Christopher Marlowe, Ben Johnson, finally, William Shakespeare.





Дата добавления: 2014-01-11; Просмотров: 3741; Нарушение авторских прав?;


Нам важно ваше мнение! Был ли полезен опубликованный материал? Да | Нет



ПОИСК ПО САЙТУ:


Рекомендуемые страницы:

Читайте также:
studopedia.su - Студопедия (2013 - 2019) год. Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав! Последнее добавление
Генерация страницы за: 0.001 сек.