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B) Using the expressions make up your own sentences





A) Match the words from column A with the words from column B to make up an expression.

Fill in the gaps with the necessary preposition.

Questions 5-10. Fill in the table. Use no more than three words for each answer.

Cause Place Effect
  all around the world (5) _______ life
  the world’s warm ocean waters reduction in (6) _____
Global warming the coldest areas of the world winter freezing periods start (7) ______ and finish _____
  (8) _________ spring and autumn seasons the growth of (9) _____ and ______ the flight of birds
  Asia, East Africa, Latin America diseases spread by (10) _____

1) Pollution has a damaging effect _____ public health and ecosystems.

2) Carbon dioxide is one of the main factors which contribute ____ global warming.

3) Healthy soil is known to depend ____ bacteria, fungi, and small animals that break down wastes in the soil and release nutrients.

4) Farmers who overuse fertilizers and pesticides limit the ability of soil organisms to process wastes which results ____ the destruction of productivity of the soil.

5) Benzene escapes ____ the exhaust pipes of cars and petrol tanks when cars are filling up.

6) A thin layer of ozone helps to shield the Earth ____ the sun’s damaging rays.

7) Global warming over the last forty years has made a dramatic change ____ the Atlantic Ocean’s salt balance.

8) CFCs are largely responsible ____ the ozone hole that temporarily opens up over Antarctica every year.

9) High concentrations of ozone and the chemicals released by motor vehicles reduce resistance ____ infection.

A B
1) global a) station
2) less carbon-intensive b) chemicals
3) aerosol c) spray
4) health-threatening d) rain
5) artificial e) fumes
6) ozone f) warming
7) power g) pollutants
8) acid h) energy technologies
9) traffic i) layer
10) ozone-depleting j) fertilizers

10. EXAM LINK. Work in pairs to discuss problems of global warming.



You should say:

What it is caused by

What effect global warming has

And explain how this problem could be solved.

Example:

I suppose I should begin by highlighting the fact that global warming is the most serious problem humanity has ever faced. Studies show that the climate of the Earth has warmed by about six-tenths of one degree Celsius for the past one-hundred years.

The first thing I should mention is that global warming is mostly caused by carbon dioxide and other heat trapping gases. In fact, industries and motor vehicles that pollute the air are responsible for the increase in temperaturein the air. As well as that,the global warming results from the destruction of ozone layer.

The latter is caused by chlorofluorocarbonswhich are percolating into the stratosphere. Actually, CFCs destruct ozone that blocks damaging ultraviolet light from the sun. It leads to the depletion of the ozone layer or ozone hole that temporarily opens up over Antarctica every year.

Another point which I could add is that we can observe many evidences of global warming. I guess the most evident is the change in the climate. The thing with climate changes is that we are experiencing fiercer hurricanes, longer droughts and more severe rainstorms and floods. As well as that, in the coldest areas of the world winter freezing periods are happening later and ending earlier. Besides, the Arctic ice is melting.

On top of that I can also add that global warming has an adverse effect on endangered animals, sea life and growth of plants. Some species are likely to disappear because they cannot move to new areas when their home climate gets too warm. Generally speaking, it has caused the change in seasonal activities of different organismsandinvasions of warm weather species into traditional cold areas. Moreover, rising temperatures in the world’s warm ocean waters have caused coral to lose color and die. It has led to the worldwide reduction in coral reefs.

I can’t but mention that global warming has resulted in the decrease of plant and animal populations and the reproduction of some reptiles and amphibians. Sea turtles can illustrate the point. The thing with them is that their nest temperature strongly determines the sex: the coldest sites produce male offspring, while the warmer sites produce female offspring. Threatened by the climate change the nest-warming trend is reducing the number of male offspring and seriously threatens turtle populations. Also, the mentioned above the Arctic ice melting endangers the polar bear’s habitat and existence.

In addition to what I’ve just said, I can add that there are some drastic measures which can be taken to solve the problem. The most effective way to get to the root of the problem would be the development of less carbon-intensive energy technology. Also, I suppose the government should design the worldwide policies to slow down the global warming. As well as that, it is important that international treaties should restrict the manufacture of CFCsand other ozone-depleting chemicals or even ban propellants in aerosol spray such as deodorants and perfumes for use. The reduction of the manufacture of CFCs and other ozone-depleting chemicals can improve the situation with the ozone layer. I shouldn’t forget to mentionthat planting trees could contribute to the reduction of damaging effects of global warming too. Trees are known to use carbon dioxide from the air thus decreasing its temperature.

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