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Speak about Software.
8. Say: What is it?
1. Text editor is the elementary program for input of the text. Word-processor - allows not only to enter and edit the text, but also to make it out.
2. Spreadsheets are used for work with figures. It is possible to enter numbers, formulas and explaining text into cells of spreadsheets. Spreadsheets are capable to transform numbers in graphs and diagrams.
3. Databases name the huge data files, organized in tabulated structures. The basic functions of control systems by databases are: creation of empty structure of a DB, granting of means of its filling or import of the data tables of other base, providing of access to the data.
Hints: Spreadsheets. Programs for working with the text. Control systems of databases.
9. Translate the following computer messages:
1.End of file encountered.
2. Warning! The active partitions not bootable.
3. Active partition not changed.
4. First cluster number is invalid.
5. All logical drives deleted in the DOS partition.
6. Invalid environment size specified.
7. Graphics characters already loaded.
8. Maximum number of logical DOS drivers installed.
9. File cancelled by operator.
10. File was changed after it was backed up.
11. Corrections will not be written to disk.
12. Code page has not been designed.
13. Target diskette is write-protected.
14. Make sure a diskette is inserted into the drive and the door is closed.
15. Files in the target drive will be erased.
16. Directory is joined.
17. Not found.
18. No logical drive defined.
19. Not processed.
20. Copy not completed.
21. Disk full – write not completed
1. Read and learn the words:
to consume — потреблять
consumer[kan'sjutmə] — потребитель
to realize — понять, осознать
to enhance [in'hα:ns] — увеличивать, расширять
on top of DOS — на основе ДОС
are shipped — поставляться
multiple users — многочисленные пользователи
simultaneously [siməl`teınıəslı] — одновременно
2. Read and translate the text:
When computers were first introduced in the 1940's and 50's, every program written had to provide instructions that told the computer how to use devices such as the printer, how to store information on a disk, as well as how to perform several other tasks not necessarily related to the program. The additional program instructions for working with hardware devices were very complex, and time-consuming. Programmers soon realized it would be smarter to develop one program that could control the computer's hardware, which others programs could have used when they needed it. With that, the first operating system was born.
Today, operating systems control and manage the use of hardware devices such as the printer or mouse. They also provide disk management by letting you store information in files. The operating system also lets you run programs such as the basic word processor. Lastly, the operating system provides several of its own commands that help you to use the computer.
DOS is the most commonly used PC operating system. DOS is an abbreviation for disk operating system. DOS was developed by a company named Microsoft. MS-DOS is an abbreviation for «Microsoft DOS». When IBM first released the IBM PC in 1981, IBM licensed DOS from Microsoft for use on the PC and called it PC-DOS. From the users’ perspective, PC-DOS and MS-DOS are the same, each providing the same capabilities and commands.
The version of DOS release in 1981 was 1.0. Over the past decade, DOS has undergone several changes. Each time the DOS developers release a new version, they increase the version number.
Windows NT (new technology) is an operating system developed by Microsoft. NT is an enhanced version of the popular Microsoft Windows 3.0, 3.1 programmes. For the best NT performance, you have to use a 486 processor with about 16 Mb or higher. Unlike the Windows, which runs on top of DOS, Windows NT is an operating system itself. However, NT is DOS compatible. The advantage of using NT over Windows is that NT makes better use of the PC's memory management capabilities.
OS/2 is a PC operating system created by IBM. Like NT, OS/2 is DOS compatible and provides a graphical user interface that lets you run programs with a click of a mouse. Also like NT, OS/2 performs best when you are using a powerful system. Many IBM-based PCs are shipped with OS/2 preinstalled.
UNIXis a multi-user operating system that allows multiple users to access the system. Traditionally, UNIX was run on larger computers to which users accessed the systems using terminals and not PC's. UNIX allowed each user to simultaneously run the programs they desired. Unlike NT and OS/2, UNIX is not DOS compatible. Most users would not purchase UNIX for their own use.
Windows 95 & 98 (Windows 2000) are the most popular user-oriented operating systems with a friendly interface and multitasking capabilities. The usage of Windows 95 and its enhanced version Windows 98 is so simple that even little kids learn how to use it very quickly. Windows 95 and 98 are DOS compatible, so all programs written for DOS may work under the new operating system.
Operating system represents the complex of system and auxiliary resources. OS is a support for program supports of higher level – applied and majority of the auxiliary applications.
Basic function of all operation systems is intermediary. It consists in support of several sorts of interface: user interface (between the user and soft-hardware of a computer) hardware-software interface (between program and hardware) program interface (between different sorts software).
3. Answer the questions to the text:
1) What problems faced programmers in the 1940's and 1950's?
2) Why were the first programs «complex» and «time-consuming»?
3) What are the basic functions of operating system?
4) What does the abbreviation DOS mean?
5) What company developed the first version of DOS operating system? For what purpose was it done? Was the new operating system successful?
6) What is the difference between the PC-DOS and MS-DOS
7) What does the abbreviation NT stand for? Is NT DOS-compatible? What are the basic requirements for NT?
8) Who is the developer of OS/2?
9) What makes UNIX so different from the other operating systems?
10) What are the special features of Windows 9 5, Windows 98, Windows 2000?
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