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Convergent evolution

Controllable attributions

Contextual intelligence



Constructive play

Construct validity


Conservation task


Consensual validation


Conjunction fallacy

in the representative heuristic, an error of judgement where the second of two statements is selected because a person fails to recognize that everything that is both A and B must also be A.


in cognitive psychology, the major formal language for the description of sub-symbolic learning.


in group membership, the process by which the group affirms and supports the views of a particular individual.

one of the components of the 'Ethical Principles for Conducting Research with Human Participants' drawn up by the British Psychology Society, which underlines the participant's need to consent to a particular study and be fully informed about the nature of the work.


a type of task, described by Jean Piaget, where superficial changes in an object or group of objects do not necessarily alter the properties of those objects.

in sociobiology, a name for another animal of the same species.

a method for assessing whether a psychometric test is valid (i.e. really measures what it is supposed to) by seeing how it matches up with theoretical ideas about what it is supposed to be measuring.


a stage of play amongst children when they develop skills by using objects in non-pretend ways, such as doing a jigsaw or pouring sand or water from one container into another.


in the study of crowd behaviour, the spread of feeling or a mood through a crowd which leads them to behave in particular, concerted and often violent ways.


in encoding specificity experiments, intrinsic context refers to various features that are an integral part of a target stimulus, whilst extrinsic context represents those features that are present when the target is encountered.

the part of Sternberg's triarchic model of intelligence which emphasises that intelligent acts always take place in a context - something which is an intelligent thing to do in one context may be stupid in another. Contexts range from being very specific, like an immediate circumstance or situation, to very broad, like an entire culture or society.

Judgements about why things happened, which contain the idea that they could potentially be directed or controlled - generally by the person who is making the attribution.


an increase in similarity between species in response to the same selection pressure brought about by the problems of living in a particular niche.

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