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AND SCIENTIFIC EXPERTISE
Or new for you.
Read the text to understand what information is of primary importance
Put these words and phrases from the text in the correct box.
Give the name of the defined law breaker.
2. steals purses and wallets
3. gets money by threatening to
disclose personal information
4. seizes aeroplanes
5. takes things from a shop
6. kills people
7. steals from houses or offices
8. steals from banks or trains
9. takes people hostage for a ransom
10. steals government secrets
11. wilfully destroys property
12. marries illegally while being
a_ _ _ _ _
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a_ _ _ _ k _ _ _ _ _ _
a_ _ j _ _ _ _ _
a_ _ _ _ l _ _ _ _ _
a_ _ r _ _ _ _ _
a_ _ _ g _ _ _
a_ _ b _ _ _
a_ _ _ n _ _ _ _ _
a _ _ _
av _ _ _ _ _
ab _ _ _ _ _ _ _
CRIME INVESTIGATION: FORENSIC SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC EXPERTISE.
1.Answer the following questions:
1. What are the investigation departments in Ukraine?
2. What is preliminary investigation called upon?
3. What types of physical evidence do you know?
4. What are the essential qualities of a successful investigator?
2. Match the following English words and expressions with their Ukrainian
1. forensic science
2. DNA profiling
3. case-by-case basis
4. fatal fire
5. domestic premises
6. investigation of shooting incidents
7. microscopic examination
8. fire-scene examination
a. по кожному конкретному
b. пожежа з людськими жертвами
c. розслідування випадків
використання вогнепальної зброї
d. дослідження місця пожежі
f. аналіз ДНК
g. аналіз за допомогою мікроскопа
h. житлові приміщення
Notes on the text:
spent bullet – стріляна куля
cartridge case – гільза
CRIME INVESTIGATION: FORENSIC SCIENCE
Forensic science and scientific expertise serve the administration of justice by providing scientific support in the investigation pf crime and providing evidence to the courts. Scientific expertise is available on a case-by-case basis to different law enforcement agencies. It is very important during investigation of many crimes, particularly fires where arson is suspected, cases involving DNA profiling and offences involving the use of firearms.
The scientists have a wide range of experience in fire-scene examination, including fatal fires in domestic premises, large industrial fires and vehicle fires.
DNA profiling is a revolutionary scientific testing process, which can positively identify an individual from a specimen of blood, hair roots, tissue, etc. its application to crime specimens represents the greatest advance in forensic science in decades. The vast potential of DNA profiling is recognized by the police and the legal profession, and its use in criminal investigation has increased.
Forensic science experts provide advice on firearms and related matters and assistance in the investigation of shooting incidents. When presented with a suspect weapon, the expert is able to establish whether or not it was the weapon used in a crime. Experts are particularly adept in the microscopic examination of spent bullets and cartridge cases.
The experts also use fingerprinting, method of identification using the impression made by the ridge patterns found on the fingertips. No two persons have exactly the same arrangement of ridge patterns, and the patterns of any one individual remain unchanged through life. Fingerprints may be classified and filed on the basis of the ridge patterns, setting up an identification system that is almost infallible.
The first recorded use of fingerprints was, by the ancient Assyrians and Chinese for the signing of legal documents. The use of fingerprints for identification purposes was proposed late in the 19th century by the British scientist Sir Francis Galton, who wrote a detailed study of fingerprints in which he presented a new classification system using prints of all ten fingers, which is the basis of identification systems still in use. Subsequently, the use of fingerprinting as a means for identifying criminals spread rapidly throughout Europe and the United States, superseding the old system of identification by means of body measurements.
As crime-detection methods improved, law enforcement officers found that any smooth, hard surface touched by a human hand would yield fingerprints made by the oily secretion present on the skin. When these so-called latent prints were dusted with powder or chemically treated, the identifying fingerprint pattern could be seen and photographed or otherwise preserved. Today, law enforcement agencies can also use computers to digitally record fingerprints and to transmit them electronically to other agencies for comparison. By comparing fingerprints at the scene of a crime with the fingerprint record of suspected persons, officials can establish absolute proof of the presence or identity of a person.
UNDERSTANDING MAIN POINTS___________________________________
3. A. Give the definitions for the following terms and expressions. What are these methods used for? What can they help to an investigator?
1. DNA profiling
2. Fire-scene examination
4. body measurements
5. microscopic examination
6. latent prints
B. Answer the following questions using the information from the text:
1. What is the principle objective of forensic science and scientific expertise?
2. What was the revolutionary testing process?
3. How can an individual be identified?
4. On which cases do forensic science experts provide advise?
5. What are other methods that are used by experts, besides DNA profiling?
6. Do ridge patterns of an individual change through life?
7. In what way did ancient Assyrians use fingerprints?
8. What is Sir Francis Galton famous for?
9. How can absolute proof of a person's identity be established?
4. WORD STUDY: translate the pairs of sentences and explain the difference
1.accident / incident
a. A bomb exploded in a department store but no one was killed in the incident.
b. Her father was killed in a car accident.
2. matter / case
a. This piece of land is the main matter of dispute.
b. Haveyou ever dealt with cartridge cases?
c. Itis a matter of a few hours.
3. adept / expert
a. His conclusion is always infallible. He is really adept.
b. He is an expert at DNA profiling.
4. crime / offence
a. This act of terrorism is considered as a crime against humanity.
b. Most prosecutions for crime are brought by police.
c. I think it is a real offence against the law.
d. Offences may be classified as indictable or summary and as arrestable or
5. specimen / sample
a. He has brought the book of samples. Let's look through them.
b. This specimen of blood helped to identify the victim.
6. proof / evidence
a. This evidence is reliable and can be admissible.
b. This requires no proof.
c. The words of this passer-by need to be proved.
d. Evidence consists of testimony, documentary evidence, real evidence and, when admissible, hearsay evidence.
7. inquiry / investigation
a. The investigator has made inquiries about the suspected.
b. An inquiry into a death the cause of which was unknown was conducted by
c. Who is responsible for the results of the investigation?
8. scene / place
a. There is no place like home.
b. What place do you come from?
c. The scene is laid in France.
d. It was striking scene.
5. Choose the right preposition in brackets according to the contents of the sentences (for, throughout, in, on, with, to, by...of, for).
1. Experts advise ...weapon and related matters.
2. The identification system, which basis was worked out by Sir Francis Galton, is still ... use.
3. The use of fingerprinting spread rapidly ... Europe.
4. After a human hand yields its fingerprint on any surface, it is usually dusted ... powder.
5. The old identification system was based on the identifying of an individual ... means ... body measurements.
6. Nowadays digitally recorded fingerprints are usually transmitted electronically to other investigation agencies ... comparison.
7. Specimen of blood can be applied ... crime specimens; this method helps to positively identify an individual.
8. The method of fingerprinting is a means ... identifying criminals.
6. Insert one of the following words into the text in an appropriate form.
to set up, forensic, subsequently,
to record, identification, skin,
ridge, examination, patterns, scene,
to transmit, evidence, to arrest, specimen
Very many books and ... papers have been published on the subject of ..., and the reference to “the prints from man’s hand” can even be found in the Bible.
The study of the application of fingerprints for useful ... purposes was ... in the latter part of the 17th century when, in 1684, the anatomist Doctor N. Grew published a paper on the subject which he illustrated with drawings of various fingerprints ... . About the same period, in Italy, Prof. Malpigni was investigating the functions of the ... .
A method of classifying and research in this field was initiated by Sir Francis Galton and Henry Faulds independently at the end of the 19 th century.
Each day, the fingerprints of people who have been sentenced to a term of imprisonment, and those who have been ... and charged with other then the most minor offences, are ... to New Scotland Yard for processing.
One of the main tasks of the National Fingerprints Office is to establish whether the person has a previous record. Scenes of serious crime are examined for fingerprints by Senior Identification Officers. The function of these officers to detect and to ... any finger or palm mark (or the arrangement of ... patterns) which an offender may have left at the scene. They also retrieve ... clues, e.g. a ... of blood, shoe or tissue marks, which are then forwarded to the Forensic laboratory for microscopic ... .
One of the cases involving the use of fingerprints ... was in 1905, when a thumb
print left on a cash box at the ... of a murder in Deptford of shopkeepers Mr. and Mrs. Farrow, was identified as belonging to Alfred Stratton, one of two brothers. As a result they were jointly charged with the crime and ... hanged.
7. There are two crime-detection methods, fill in the chart with the words below. Sort out odd words.
Specimen, oily secretion, blood, bullet, powder, hair root, tissue, finger, skin, weapon, fingertip, ridge pattern, fingerprint record, shooting incidents.
8. WORD FAMILIES. The verbs below can all be used to form nouns. Find in the text the words which have related meanings and make up your own sentences with them. Pay special attention to where the stress is.
Example: To lead – a leader (n.) e. g. Who is the leader of this political party?
To compare, to record, to identify, to investigate, to test, to examine, to present.
9. Complete the table. Consult the text or a dictionary if necessary.
10. DISCUSSION. What are the types of witnesses that an investigator can deal with at the time of investigating a case?
11. An investigator is to ask and answer a lot of questions to disclose a crime and classify it. Write them out, they are beginning with:
1) who(at least 5);
2) what (at least 7);
3) where (at least 7);
4) when (3);
5) how (4);
6) with what (2);
7) why (2);
8) with whom (4);
9) how much (4).
12. Read the text and 1) give the names to the types of murders considering the motive; 2) write out Participles I and Participles II and give written translation.
1. Because these murders are not carefully planned, but instead spring from emotions spontaneously acted on, there are often witnesses and considerable evidence. This type of murder occurs most frequently and tends to follow a set pattern:
· The victim and the assailant were married living together;
· The victim and the assailant were under the influence of alcohol;
· The victim and the assailant were from a low socioeconomic group;
· The incident that led to the assault was trivial;
· The assailant has been implicated in earlier violent incidents.
2. These murders occur between individuals who are professionally or personally involved in such a manner that the perpetrator stands to benefit materially from the victim’s death. The material benefit can take many forms. One of the key questions that the investigator must ask is: Who stands to gain the most from the victim? These murders are carefully planned, and the perpetrator sometimes goes to great length to make the death appear natural or accidental.
3. Like spontaneous murders, these murders have a high clearance rate because the assailant is primarily concerned with injuring or killing the person on whom his or her emotions have become fixed. The murderer is often a rejected lover, and the victim may be either the person who has done the rejecting or some third party involved in a lover’s triangle.
4. These murders may be pre-planned by the perpetrator or may occur as a secondary aspect of a sex crime. The actual murder of the victim may occur before, during, or after the sex act; it depends on the idiosyncrasies (відхилення в психіці) of the perpetrator and the actions of the victim.
5. Judges, police officers, organized crime figures and drug dealers may be victims of these murders. In some instances the act of revenge (помста) is made indirectly, on some member of the target person's family.
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