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A) Study the definitions of the words with similar meanings and think about their proper Russian equivalents





VOCABULARY COMMENTARY II

Causes of injuries, to require hospital treatment for smth., to be the most at risk, to prevent smth. from happening, to be left alone, rubber mats, to slip on the floor, to drown, appliance cords

XVIII. Translate the sentences from Russian into English based on the listening comprehension exercise 34 (Upstream Intermediate, p. 14). Use the given words and word combinations as well as the active vocabulary of exercise 35 (Upstream Intermediate, p. 14).

1) Вы знали о том, что более чем 1 миллиону детей в Британии каждый год требуется больничное лечение из-за несчастных случаев дома?

2) Каковы наиболее распространенные причины травм и как их можно предотвратить?

3) Падения, ожоги, отравления, удушье – вот основные причины травм дома и маленькие дети находятся в зоне повышенного риска.

4) Чтобы предотвратить падение детей с лестницы, необходимо установить защитные ограждения сверху и снизу.

5) Родители могут использовать резиновые коврики, чтобы дети не поскользнулись на полу, особенно в ванной.

6) Детей никогда нельзя оставлять одних в ванной. Ребенок может утонуть всего лишь в 2 дюймах воды.

7) Самая опасная комната в доме – это кухня. Никогда нельзя разрешать детям играть без присмотра (одним) в кухне. Родителям следует держать горячую пищу, острые предметы и электрошнуры в недоступных местах. Необходимо также поставить предохранительные защелки на все шкафы и выдвижные ящики, а на электрические розетки – защитные крышки.

8) Бассейны могут представлять опасность для детей, т.к. они могут упасть в них и утонуть. Родителям всегда следует контролировать детей и установить защитные перила, чтобы предотвратить падение.

9) Химикаты и чистящие вещества также опасны. Дети могут проглотить их и отравиться. Такие вещества следует хранить в запертых шкафах.

 

1. historic / historical

historic – [adj]

important in history, or likely to be considered important at some time in the future

In London you can see a lot of areas of special architectural or historic interest.



historical – [adj]

connected with history or with the past; connected with history as a subject of study; used for describing someone or something as they really existed in the past; historical research / evidence / traditions / novel

The painting depicts an actual historical event.

Note:a historic event – an event which is well-remembered; a historical event – an event which took place in history.

2. leave / abandon

to leave – [v]

to go away from a person or a place

The ship left before dawn. My secretary has threatened to leave.

to abandon – [v]

to leave a person, especially someone you are responsible for; to go away from a place, especially because it is difficult or dangerous to stay there; to stop doing smth. or being involved in smth. because there are too many problems and it is impossible to continue; to leave something in a place, especially because you are in a hurry or are trying to escape

His mother abandoned him when he was five days old. After 20 lessons I finally abandoned my attempt to learn to drive. The stolen car was abandoned only five miles away.

3. coast / shore / beach / seaside

the coast – [n, singular]

an area of land beside a sea, used to talk about a country or a large part of a country

We were driving along the Californian coast, from San Francisco to LA. She lives in a small village on the south coast of England.

the shore – [n, singular]

the land along the edge of the sea or along the edge of the lake

We could see a boat about a mile fromthe shore. They stayed in a hotel on the shore of Lake Geneva.

a beach – [n, C]

an area of sand or small stones beside a sea or a lake

I like the kind of holiday where I can sit on the beach for a week and do nothing.

the seaside – [n, singular]

a place by the sea, especially a holiday resort

When I was little we used to go to the seaside most weekends.

 

4. repair / fix / decorate / redecorate / renovate / restore / maintain / mend

to repair – [v]

to mend smth. that is broken or damaged

Little seems to have been done to repair the bridges.

repairs – [n, C, usually plural]

work that is done to fix smth., an act or result of repairing smth.

How much will the repairs cost?

to fix – [v]

to repair smth. that is broken or not working properly, especially a machine

The radio isn’t working – can youfix it? I have to get my car fixed.

to decorate – [v]

(BrE)to put paint or paper on the walls of a room

We decorated the kitchen last week.

to redecorate – [v]

to paint a room again or put new wallpaper on the walls

The paint on the wall in the cellar has chipped off, you should redecorate it.

to renovate – [v]

to make something old look new again by repairing and improving it, especially a building

The old hospital needs renovating.

to restore – [v]

to clean and repair something old and dirty or damaged so that it looks the same as it did originally

The church has now been beautifully restored.

to maintain – [v]

to make regular repairs to the building, road, vehicle etc. so that it stays in good condition

The house is large and difficult to maintain.

maintenance – [n, U]

regular work done to check and repair smth. so that it stays in good condition

Mr. White is responsible for the maintenance of the school buildings.

to mend – [v]

to repair smth. that is broken or not working, or smth. that has a hole in it

When are you going to mend the fence?

5. destroy / ruin / damage / harm / spoil / injure

to destroy – [v]

to damage smth. so badly that it cannot be repaired

The earthquake destroyedmuch of the city.

to ruin– [v]

to destroy or severely damage something so that it loses all its value, pleasure, etc.; to spoil something

You'll completely ruin the flowers if you touch them. They didn't want to be accused of ruining everyone's fun.

to damage – [v]

to cause physical harm to something, so that it no longer looks good or works properly; to have a bad effect on something, in a way that makes it weaker, less effective, or less successful; Synonym: to harm



Don’t put any hot pans on the table – you’ll damage the surface. The scandal will damage the company’s reputation.

damage / harm – [n, U]

the serious problems that smth. causes for a person, organization etc.; to do harm / damage

If you keep criticizing children, it can do a lot of harm. Once the damage is done, even modern surgery can’t undo it entirely.

to harm – [v]

to damage smth; to have a bad effect on something, in a way that makes it weaker, less effective, or less successful; Synonym: to damage

Too much direct sunlight will harm the plant.

If the peace talks fail, it will harm the President’s chances of being re-elected.

to spoil– [v]

to affect something in a way that makes it worse, less attractive, or less enjoyable

Radio towers spoilt the view. Don’t let him spoil your evening.

to injure – [v]

to cause physical harm to someone or to yourself, for example in an accident or an attack; to be injured

One of the players injured his knee and had to be carried off.

6. cause / reason

a cause (of) – [n, C]

a person, event, or thing that makes smth. happen

What was the cause of the fire? The doctor recorded the cause of death as heart failure.

a reason (for / why / that) – [n, C]

the cause or explanation for smth. that has happened or that someone has done; areason for / why / that

The only reason I went was that I wanted to meet your friends. What are your reasons for leaving the job?

b) Fill in the gaps choosing an appropriate word in the correct form:

1. historic / historical

1. The cathedral is a major __________monument.

2. Tourists like to visit __________ monuments such as Stonehenge and Westminster Abbey.

3. You must place these events in their __________ context.

4. In his book, Churchill describes that __________ first meeting with Roosevelt.

5. This is a __________ event we have found out recently.

6. They are going on a tour of the __________ monuments of the city.

2. leave / abandon

1. Your plane __________ in ten minutes.

2. The coastal settlements were __________ in the 19th century.

3. He was brought up by his uncle because his parents __________ him when he was a child.

4. If they __________ after lunch, they should arrive by dark.

5. George almost persuaded me to __________ my studies and join him.

6. The children were so noisy that the teacher asked them to __________.

 

3. coast / shore / beach / seaside

1. Three of the sailors managed to swim to the __________.

2. The ship was wrecked on the Florida __________.

3. I wish I lived at the __________.

4. The hotel has its own __________.

5. I used to live in a small village on the __________ of Brittany.

6. The __________gets very crowded by 11 o’clock.

7. It was a __________ resort on the French __________.

8. Great waves were breaking on the __________.

4. repair(s) / fix / decorate / redecorate / renovate / restore / maintain / mend

1. You should think carefully about the color scheme before _________ because different colours can affect how we feel.

2. The roof is leaking. It needs _________.

3. When families need a second bathroom, more storage space or an extra bedroom, a lot of people consider ___________ their homes instead of buying something bigger.

4. The air conditioner sends out warm air. We need to have it _______.

5. We have decided to _________ our house a little: to upgrade plumbing and add insulation.

6. The lock is broken. Will you have a look, please? May be, you’ll be able to _______ it.

7. The palace has been ________ to its former grandeur.

8. The new hotel’s owners planned a whole interior anew and put a lot of effort into ________ each room, making the curtains, painting the walls and _________ old furniture.

9. The shop is closed for _________.

10. The builders are coming to _______ the roof today.

11. This car is economical and easy to __________.

12. The department is responsible for the _________ of roads and bridges.

13. My father used to _______ our shoes.

 

5. destroy / ruin / damage / harm / spoil / injure

1. The factory was almost completely _______ by fire.

2. Four people have been _________ in a road accident.

3. Modern farming methods have done considerable ________ to the countryside.

4. Take care not to _______ the timer mechanism.

5. In Brazil the rainforests are gradually being _________.

6. Any kind of dishonest dealing will ________ his career.

7. The whole show was _________ by the lack of decent actors.

8. He doesn’t want to _________ his reputation as a political personality.

9. A number of bombs have exploded, seriously _________ at least five people.

10. Criticizing people’s work often does more _______ than good.

11. The bad weather ________ our trip.

 

6. cause / reason

1. There are several ________ why the plan won’t work.

2. Smoking is one of the main _________ of heart disease.

3. Police are investigating the ________ of the explosion.

4. We aren’t going, for the simple ________ that we can’t afford it.

 

Exercises to the culture clip section (Upstream Intermediate, pp.16 – 17)

 

XIX. Read the texts (Upstream Intermediate, pp.16-17). Learn the pronunciation of the following words and word combinations:

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