Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!
Архитектура-(3434)Астрономия-(809)Биология-(7483)Биотехнологии-(1457)Военное дело-(14632)Высокие технологии-(1363)География-(913)Геология-(1438)Государство-(451)Демография-(1065)Дом-(47672)Журналистика и СМИ-(912)Изобретательство-(14524)Иностранные языки-(4268)Информатика-(17799)Искусство-(1338)История-(13644)Компьютеры-(11121)Косметика-(55)Кулинария-(373)Культура-(8427)Лингвистика-(374)Литература-(1642)Маркетинг-(23702)Математика-(16968)Машиностроение-(1700)Медицина-(12668)Менеджмент-(24684)Механика-(15423)Науковедение-(506)Образование-(11852)Охрана труда-(3308)Педагогика-(5571)Полиграфия-(1312)Политика-(7869)Право-(5454)Приборостроение-(1369)Программирование-(2801)Производство-(97182)Промышленность-(8706)Психология-(18388)Религия-(3217)Связь-(10668)Сельское хозяйство-(299)Социология-(6455)Спорт-(42831)Строительство-(4793)Торговля-(5050)Транспорт-(2929)Туризм-(1568)Физика-(3942)Философия-(17015)Финансы-(26596)Химия-(22929)Экология-(12095)Экономика-(9961)Электроника-(8441)Электротехника-(4623)Энергетика-(12629)Юриспруденция-(1492)Ядерная техника-(1748)
Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!
The subject matter of stylistic morphology
BASICS OF STYLISTIC MORPHOLOGY
General (non-stylistic) morphology treats morphemes and grammatical meanings expressed by them in language in general, without regard to their stylistic value. Stylistic morphology, on the contrary, is interested in grammatical forms and grammatical meanings that are peculiar to particular sublanguages, explicitly or implicitly comparing them with the neutral ones common to all the sublanguages. The stylistic potential of the morphology of the English language is one of the least investigated areas of research, especially the stylistic properties of the parts of speech and such grammatical categories as gender, number, person.
According to Y.M. Skrebnev, there are two trends of stylistic significance in English morphology: 1) synonymy (paradigmatic equivalence or inter- changeability of different morphemes); and 2) variability of use (or inter- changeability) of morphological categorial forms (i.e. component parts of the category) or of members of the opposition that constitute the grammatical category (such as tense, person, number, etc). In both cases, there is a possibility of choice, of using one out of two or more varieties which co-exist paradigmatically.
3.2. Stylistic potential of affixes and word-building patterns
Stylistic morphology primarily deals with word-building expressive means (grammatical forms), under which the linguists consider: 1) expressivity of affixes and 2) expressivity of different word-building patterns.
Any morpheme has an inherent structural meaning, but as a result of foregrounding of a morpheme it becomes vehicle of additional information — logical, emotive, expressive, thus creating the stylistic effect. One important way of promoting a morpheme is its repetition. Both root and affixational morphemes can be emphasized through repetition. Especially vividly it is observed in the repetition of affixational morphemes which normally carry the main weight of the structural and not of the denotational significance. When repeated they come into focus of attention andstress either their logical meaning (that of contrast, negation, absence of quality as in prefixes a-, de-, mis-; or of smallness as in suffixes -ling, -ette); their emotive and evaluative meaning (as in suffixes forming degrees of comparison); or else they add to the rhythmical effect and text unity.
Every particular affix has its own connotational potential, thus enabling the speaker to communicate his positive or negative evaluation of a person or thing. For example, suffix -ish in different cases of use has the following meanings:
1) brown — brownish, blue — bluish: a neutral morpheme, demonstrates a small degree of this or that quality;
2) baldish, biggish, dullish: reveals the speaker's reluctance to name things in a strict, straightforward and categorical manner and presents a more tentative and tactful characteristic of this or that quality;
3)bookish, childish, doggish, goatish, sheepish, womanish, mannish (in relation to a woman): if added to a noun, forms adjectives with negative derogatory connotation, indicating the bad or unsuitable qualities of something, revealing irritation, disapproval. Such words as girlish, boyish are exceptions;
4) honey-moonish: in compound words the negative evaluation becomes more intensive;
5) 40sh (about 40), atfourish (around 4 o'clock), at tennish (around 10 o'clock): if added to numerals it demonstrates uncertainty and approxi- mateness.
Negative attitude can also be rendered by such suffixes with negative evaluation as: -ard (drunkard, coward), -ster (gangster, mobster, hipster, oldster), -aster (poetaster), -eer (profiteer; black marketeer), -monger (scarere-monger, war-monger, panic-monger), -o (oldo, kiddo, weirdo, sicko).
Diminutive suffixes (another stylistically relevant group of suffixes) Point to a small size of something, at the same time revealing tender, jocular or pejorative attitude: -kin (lambkin, Thumbkin), -let (chicklet, eaglet, starlet, rivulet), -ling (weakling, duckling), -y (daddy), -ie (lassie, oldie, sweetie, cutie, girlie), -ette (kitchenette кухонька)), -roo (Be a buddy. Be a buddyroo (Salinger)).
Negative affixes (in-, un-, ir-, non-, -less) traditionally represent objects and phenomena as devoid of some quality (e.g.: unbending; irregular; non-profit organisation) but may obtain evaluative derogatory connotation and demonstrate the speaker's attitude to the phenomenon: un-birthday present (L. Carroll); And all Nature's signs and voices shame the prayerless heart of man (J.G. Whittier).
Apart from morphemic repetition, another effective way of using a morpheme for the creation of additional information is extension of its normative valency, which results in the formation of new words. The existing word-building patterns can be used to create occasional words, which are coined for special communicative situations only. Such words are characterized by freshness, originality lucidity of their inner form and morphemic structure. Very often violation of normative valency creates comical effect. The following word-building patterns can be considered here: a) compounding, blending: friend-in-chief (commander-in-chief); love-co- loured glasses (rose-coloured glasses); Snowdzilla ((snow+Godzilla) — the name given to a 5-meter snowman); intrigue-o-meter, b) attributive phrases: God-I-want-it gaze; c) reduplication: helter-skelter, razzle-dazzle; d) abbreviation, shortening: celeb (celebrity);/ab (fabulous); tec (detective); fant (fantastic); beau (beautiful).