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Introduction





Lecture 1

История хозяйства и материальной культуры

Темы лекционных занятий 3

Темы семинаров и рекомендованная литература 40

Учебное издание

Петайкина М.В.

Методическое пособие для студентов 4 курса

гуманитарного факультета, по специальности

«История»

 

Подписано в печать 03.2010.

Формат 60х84/16. Гарнитура Arial

Усл. печ. л. 3,5. Тираж 30 экз.

 

Отпечатано с оригинал-макета в типографии

Ульяновского государственного университета

432970, г. Ульяновск, ул. Л. Толстого, 42

 

 

The History of the English Language appeared as a serious science in the 19th century. Every science has its object, subject and aims.

The objectof The History of the English Language is the English Language itself, its phonetic, grammatical and lexical aspects.

The subjectof The History of the English Language is:

· main changes in the phonetic structure and spelling of the language at different stages of the development of the language;

· the evolution of the grammatical system;

· the growth and development of the vocabulary.

All these changes are considered against the background of the main historical events that took place in the country.

The aimof The History of the English Language is to study the changes mentioned above.

 

The History of the English Language has been reconstructed on the basis of written records of different periods. The earliest written texts in English are dated in the 7th century. The earliest records in other Germanic languages go back to the 3rd or 4th centuries A.D.

 

Language is constantly changing, at different speed and at different linguistic levels (phonetics, grammar, lexicon). The linguistic history explains many features of present-day language (see § 3-5, p. 10-12 in “История английского языка” by Т.А. Расторгуева).

 

A language can be studied synchronically:

· a certain period in the history of the development of a language is taken (fixed time boundaries) – horizontal study;



· each level of a language is studied (phonetics, grammar, lexicon);

· different functional varieties of a language are studied (different dialects of this period).

or diachronically:

· all periods in the history of the development of a language are taken – vertical study;

· only one level of a language is studied (phonetics or grammar or lexicon);

· only one functional variety of a language is studied (e.g. Standard English).

These two types of studying a language are closely interconnected and create a full picture of the development of a language.

 

The History of the English Language is interconnected with other linguistic and non-linguistic disciplines:

1.General Linguistics – provides us with general linguistic laws and rules valid for and language.

2.History – historical events that take place in a country influence to a great extent the language of this country.

3.Theoretical Phonetics – provides us with main phonetic notions and helps to explain phonetic phenomena.

4.Theoretical Grammar – provides us with main grammatical notions and helps to explain grammatical phenomena.

5.Lexicology - provides us with main lexicological notions and helps to explain lexical phenomena.

6.Cultural Studies – helps to understand better the connection between the culture and the language of the country and their mutual influence.

7.Literature – gives us examples of the languages of this or that historical period and these works of literature serve as the material for the language research.

 





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