:


-(3434)-(809)-(7483)-(1457) -(14632) -(1363)-(913)-(1438)-(451)-(1065)-(47672) -(912)-(14524) -(4268)-(17799)-(1338)-(13644)-(11121)-(55)-(373)-(8427)-(374)-(1642)-(23702)-(16968)-(1700)-(12668)-(24684)-(15423)-(506)-(11852) -(3308)-(5571)-(1312)-(7869)-(5454)-(1369)-(2801)-(97182)-(8706)-(18388)-(3217)-(10668) -(299)-(6455)-(42831)-(4793)-(5050)-(2929)-(1568)-(3942)-(17015)-(26596)-(22929)-(12095)-(9961)-(8441)-(4623)-(12629)-(1492) -(1748)


 

Internet . Internet , . : , . Internet . , Internet .

Internet :

;

, ;

, , ;

;

.

Internet ( , , -, firewall). . () - (), , / , , . . () . , .

() , (, Internet) . . -, , . -, , (, , ).



, , , , , , . , .

TCP/IP ( ) OSI. , . -, TCP/IP 5 (, , , ), OSI 7 (, , , , , ). . -, OSI. -, , - .

OSI . :

( );

( );

(circuit-level proxy);

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(stateful inspection), .

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. : , . . . , , . , , . , , , .

. , : , A ftp B telnet, A PUT ftp.

: (allow) (deny). reject, , ICMP - . deny , .

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