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Robert Dal. It is pleasant to the person or not, it cannot be out of sphere of certain type of political system the Policy - one of the inevitable facts of human
It is pleasant to the person or not, it cannot be out of sphere of certain type of political system … the Policy - one of the inevitable facts of human life”.
POLITICAL SCIENCE: THE SUBJECT, OBJECT, THE BASIC STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
Поскольку исполкомы входят в исполнительнуюветвь власти, то они обладают одним главным полномочием – управленческим. В рамках своей управленческой компетенции исполкомы:
· Разрабатывают программы экономического и социального развития соответствующих административно-территориальных единиц, представляя их на утверждениеместным Советам депутатов;
· Организуют исполнение названных программ и представляют местным Советам депутатов отчеты о реализации данных программ;
· Разрабатываютпроекты местных бюджетов и направляют их на утверждение местным Советам депутатов;
· Организуют исполнение местных бюджетов и представляют соответствующие отчеты местным Советам депутатов;
· Распоряжаются коммунальной собственностью.
Исполком – коллегиальный орган, поэтому все его решения должны приниматься путем голосованиячленовисполкома. Правовые актыисполкомов так и называются – решения. Как и решения местных Советов депутатов, акты исполкомов могут носитьнормативный либо индивидуально-правовой характер.
Несмотря на коллегиальный характер исполкома, его Председатель обладает и некоторыми важными единоличными полномочиями:
1.Назначает всех остальных сотрудников исполкома, руководителей организаций коммунальной формы собственности.
Местные администрации – это коллегиальные государственныеорганы, которые осуществляют исполнительную власть в рамках территориальных единиц, а не административно-территориальных единиц: например, в районахгородов.
Руководитель местной администрации называется Главой.Глава местной администрации назначается Председателем городского исполкома.
Администрации обладают несколько меньшими полномочиями, например, они не составляют и не организуют исполнение местного бюджета.
I.Термин "Political science" is formed of two Greek words:« polike »- art of realisation of the power in a city-state (policy), and«logos»- concept, judgement, knowledge. Various authors interpret an origin of the termof"politician"differently. One researchers assert that the name of the politician occurs from Greek“polis”and its derivatives“politeia”(constitution),“polites”(citizen)and“politikos”(statesman).Others believe that the given concept has occurred from“politike”that meant a science and art of departure of state affairs. Thethird consider that the word of the politician has occurred from“politeia”,designating legislative registration socially-state system. Thefourth are convinced that the concept of"politician"has occurred from the Greek words“poli”(much)and“tikos”(interests).Therefore political science define as a science about the politician or as system of knowledge of the politician where the policy appears as the diverse world of relations, activity, behaviour, sights and communication communications concerning realisation of group interests, the power and management of a society more often.
Political science - the new name of the political science which have affirmed in 60 - 70th years of the XX-th century at first in Germany and France, then in Russia. In many western countries, and first of all to the USA, this term has not got so wide application though there and recognise its speech conveniences - brevity and clearness. In formation of all extensive complex of knowledge of the politician three systems consistently mediating each other or levels of intellectual development of political practice are allocated:
- First of all, this ordinary knowledge as primary generalisation of direct political experience. Presently it is reflected in a press, performances and memoirs of politicians, in reasonings of political commentators etc.;
- Other level is presented diverse, created basically the separate prophets, wise men, legalists, thinkers by political doctrines through which transition from myths and mythological knowledge to dogmatic knowledge - systematised enough was carried out, but to the noncritical description of those or other beliefs and законоучений. The big validity of knowledge of the politician here is reached at the expense of them догматизации, that is transformations into the indisputable true recognised without proofs, and also restrictions of the subject of judgement. Over a policy and people operating in this sphere in that case there is a certain law - divine or human, - which defines rules of political behaviour. Examples of such knowledge in the modern policy - various ideologies (the visible French political scientist and sociologist Rajmon Aron (1905-1983)named their doctrines taking in a shower of the person a place of belief and aspiring in any form of a social order “to rescue mankind”);
- Transition to the following level of knowledge - to knowledge critical, - is connected with searches of sense and logic in the policy. The important role in this process was executed by Nikolo Makiavelli (1469-1527) and great humanists of Renaissance. They have opposed to dogma practical experience, having created preconditions of occurrence of a political science (or that same - political science).
II. The Political science has grown from rationalisation (rationality [from an armour. rationalis - reasonable] - reasonable validity, expediency; the generalised characteristic of public activity and behaviour of the person, based on its purposeful activity and effective achievement of objects in view) ordinary and dogmatic knowledge of the politician. Great products of religious, philosophical and political thought served as that intellectual environment out of which this science could not develop. For this reason studying of history of political thought makes an important and integral direction of political science. At all magnificence of known monuments of the Chinese, Indian, Near-Eastern and Far East philosophising in sphere of a policy and volume that works of ancient Greeks of Platon (427-347 BC) and its pupil Aristotle(384-322 BC), Roman Tsitserona (106-43 BC) Allow to consider them as forerunners of a political science, nevertheless it is possible to assert that bases of modern political science were put approximately from the middle of XIII century and in the Western Europe.
Here scholasticism (from гр. scholastikos - school, educational) - the medieval philosophical current which representatives aspired to prove and systematise rationally Christian dogma to connect is divine-dogmatic knowledge with a rationalistic technique, - gradually created the bases for occurrence at the European universities of new forms of learning. Among them there were also disciplines which were called:
- ars politica - political art (the term belonged to the German philosopher and theologian Albert Velikomu, nearby 1193-1280);
- scientia politica - a political science (the author of the term - the monk-Dominican subsequently canonised, Foma Akvinsky, 1226-1274);
- sanctissima civilis scientia - божественнейшая a civil science (the authorship of the term is attributed to German writer-humanist Sebastjanu Brantu, 1448-1521) etc.
The first lifting of a political science has had on a XVI-XVII-th century. At this time there were works of great Italian Nikolo Makiavelli(1469-1527),Six books about republic ”theFrench philosopher and politician Jean Bodena (1520-1596)have been written“,works of the Dutch lawyer, the historian and diplomat Gugo Grotsija (1583-1645), theBelgian scientist and writer Justa Lipsija(1547-1606),German jurist Samuelja Pufendorfa(1632-1694)are published.Efforts of these thinkers in the systematised kind had been considered for the first time a policy as sphere of human activity. Already in the XVII-th century beginning specialised chairs of political knowledge at universities of the Netherlands and Sweden have been opened. The science was extended in German universities during the same time about political благочинии ”, later developed in the doctrine about the state administration“. Insufficient criticality of early approaches to policy studying has led to that political researches have fallen under aspiration of theorists of an epoch of Education to create a universal science about the person and a society. In a XIX-th century this project have tried to continue Ogjust Kont (1798-1857) in the concept of the general sociology andCharles Marx (1818-1883) who in the doctrine insisted on merge in a single whole of philosophy, economy and sociology.
III. Formation of a political science as independent sphere of researches and teaching has begun in second half of XIX-th century. At this time university divisions государствоведения and politicians were created by joint efforts of historians, lawyers, the philosophers specialising on a political problematics. On attempts of creation of universal public theories the scientists who were engaged in political sphere, have answered with special attention to empirical methodology (from гр. еmpeiria - experience) that was reflected in the most detailed descriptions of various types of the states, the forms of government, other phenomena of political life (Teodor Vulsi [1801-1889], Vudro Wilson [1856-1924], Wilhelm Rosher [1817-1894]), Boris Nikolaevich Tchitcherin [1828-1904], etc.) . Their explanation of the political phenomena and processes started with concrete cultural and historic facts and factors at a known inattention to the nature of the person and a society as a whole. The priority thus starts to be given political компаративистике (from an armour. comparativus - comparative). It did political science more susceptible to complexity and variety of norms, values, institutes and social structures and to interrelation of various forms of political behaviour of people and political organisms, which as modern American political scientist David Apter (believes a sort. 1924), “can mean absolutely other for on whom they extend”. The comparative scientific material got special value because in research process joined invariably inherent in political science of each country a problematics of the theory and practice of national political system. John Stewart Mill (1806-1873) and its followers considered a comparative method in society knowledge to corresponding experimental experiences in natural sciences. On this base the further progress of a political science has been reached.
At the oldest Swedish university Uppsala the policy as the subject matter began to get scientific character since 1840th years. The Catholic university of Dublin (Ireland) in 1855 has formed chair of a social and political science. Approximately in 1870th in Oxford (Great Britain) and the Parisian university began to read special courses on the politician. Behind ocean Frensisom Liberom in the Colombian college in 1857 the separate chairon history and a political science has been created, and in 1863 at Kornelsky university the faculty of history, a social and political science has been opened already. In 1870th years in this country specialisation of post-graduate students in political researches begins. In Russia the academic tradition of studying of a policy too arises in second half of XIX-th century, in great reforms. It is possible to consider as the first Russian actually political researches such works, as “History of political doctrines” (it is published in 1869) B.Н. Tchitcherin, ”the Policy as a science” (1872) A.I.Stronina, “the Istoriko-comparative method in jurisprudence and receptions of studying of history of the right” (1880) M.M.Kovalevsky (1851-1916). Development of early Russian political science occurred on the basis of comparative approaches, but also experts in area of history of a policy and the right, the lawyers who were taking up the problems of the state most advantageously worked.
IV. The stage of development of a political science begins With the first quarter of XX century modern, proceeding and until now. The basic contribution to development of modern political science was brought by the western theorists: Tolkott Parsons (1902-1979), David Iston (a sort. 1917), Ralf Darendorf (a sort. 1929), Moris Djuverzhe (a sort. 1917), Robert Dal (a sort. 1915), Gabriel Almond (a sort. 1911), Stephen Verba (a sort. 1932), etc. the Modern political science - авторитетнейшая the academic discipline, In the world operates the International association of political scientists (IPSA) which regularly spends scientific conferences and symposiums. Opinions of professional political scientists-analysts began to be considered by working out and acceptance of the major decisions in all states and the international organisations. Development of a modern political science can be divided into three stages:
1) the formation period (second half XIX century - the end of 40th years ХХ century) when the main attention was given to research of problems of the political power and its social bases;
2) the period of active expansion of spheres of politological researches after creation in 1949 of the International association of a political science (the end 40 - second half 70th ХХ centuries);
3) the period of search of new paradigms of development of a political science (the XX-th century end on the present), characteristic promotion adequate to a current state of a human society of models and concepts of the power and political relations.
V. Especially quickly and fruitfully the political science developed in second half ХХ of century. Also it has been connected basically with two main circumstances:
First, with occurrence in the American political science бихевиористского the approach which became, following Robert Dalja's definition (a sort. 1915), a synonym of "political behaviour”. The policy, in opinion бихевиористов, represents real actions of real people in political practice, instead of various sets of institutes and structures through which citizens express the will. бихевиористского the approach it is possible to consider as the main difference that it put forward in the centre of researches behaviour of the ordinary person, the ordinary citizen. It was reflected at once in research priorities. Before opening of the new approach the political theory opened policy sphere through concepts of "justice", "state", "right", "patriotism", "society", "virtue", "tyranny". After occurrence бихевиоризма for the same purposes terms of "relation", "group", "conflicts", "interactions", "striations" began to be used;
Secondly, with introduction new методологий political researches the system analysis of political practice began to be used widely. The system approach in a political science can be characterised as follows:
Political life is a system of behaviour, existence of the person in the surrounding public environment opened for influences, proceeding from the outside and internal sources proceeding from the outside;
The political system is a number of interactions by means of which in a society values necessary for civilised life are distributed;
The political system has the "regulating" and "self-regulating" potentials, allowing to change, correct internal processes and structures in order to avoid system self-damage;
The political system is dynamical and изменчива;
The political system can keep stability in the presence of certain balance between entering both proceeding influences and impulses.
The system theory of a policy has led to that variety of new discoveries, generalisations, terms has taken place:
The theory of democracy of Joseph Shumpetera;
The pluralistic theory of democracy of Robert Dalja;
The theory партиципаторной Kroforda MacPhersonandBenjamin Barbera's democracies;
The concept of the state of general prosperity, consumer society;
The standardised terminology connecting political science others, including fundamental sciences;
The comparative political science began to use concept "system" as macrounit in the comparative analysis.
VI. Though substantially and conditionally, in variety of political doctrines of formed western political science it was possible to allocate two basic directions, embodying two old scientific tradition. Representatives of one of them - rationalisticor, otherwise,сциентистского (scientific), - trust in boundless possibilities of human reason and available scientific means of knowledge in this connection constantly aspire to create the general theory of a policy. In their opinion, the political science differs nothing from natural sciences. It, as well as fundamental sciences, deals with the laws which action basically can be calculated and predicted. Representatives of other direction which usually name empirical, sceptically estimate possibility of opening of the general laws of political processes and construction of uniform scientific system of the theoretical knowledge adequate to the real political validity. They consider that at policy sphere always there are the certain unknown persons who are not giving in to the account the facts and factors who are capable to disavow the most ideal theoretical scheme. Therefore the political science problem consists not in predictions something else not existing, and in honesty to investigate last experience, to give as more as possible adequate description of the available validity, leaning on which each professional politician will do own conclusions about tomorrow, being guided thus not only knowledge, but also intuition.
Many scientific steels to differentiate understanding of political science in wide and narrower sense of a word. In the first case this science appears as all system of scientific knowledge of the politician, set of all political disciplines, including political philosophy, political sociology, political anthropology, the state and right theory, geopolitics, political psychology. In the second case it is a question of political science as one of the political sciences, the policy creating the theory, the political phenomena, relations and processes, and also studying universal forms of display of a policy in various conditions of the different countries and the people. The political science in the latter case appears as a science about the general principles and laws of political life of a society and their specific display, about ways, forms and methods of their realisation to activity of subjects of a policy.
In world tradition of political knowledge it is usually accepted to distinguish political science as that (English political science) and political sciences (English policy science). In Anglo-American “the Dictionary of the political analysis” the political science is understood as the systematised studying of a policy as a whole and, more narrowly, the government. In the research plan political science development went from attention to formal institutes (basically to the state) and to legal relations in a direction of scientific interest to behaviour of people and their groups in the politician, to political processes and systems, informal relations. The maintenance of the basic sections of political science as complex scientific and a subject matter usually make: 1) the political theory; 2) the comparative analysis of political phenomena; 3) behaviour in policy sphere; 4) imperious relations; 5) state-administrative activity; 6) the international relations and world politics.
VII. To the XXI-st century beginning the political science represents quickly changing area of knowledge successfully overcoming those barriers which differentiated earlier its concrete sections. It began to give political science clearly interdisciplinary character. The similar order of things began to develop in a course of "new revolution” in a political science which approach in 1969 David Iston (a sort declared else. 1917). From its point of view, in the course of giving of political science of new quality it was necessary not only to overcome some negative sides бихевиоризма (hobby for creation of "a pure science”, underestimation of a practical component of political knowledge, hobby for the abstract analysis, insufficient attention to morals problems) but also to reorient a political science on the decision of new problems. Easton meant the following from them: research of problems of a general crisis of a human civilisation and transition in a postindustrial phase of development; Overcoming of the empirical conservatism traditionally peculiar to a political science; introduction in the theory of political science of the reasonings connected with influence of morally-ethical values on behaviour “the person political”; inclusion in a subject field of a political science of nonconventional subjects of a policy (new social movements, transnational associations, marginal structures) which occurrence demands development of new political procedures.
Necessity such “new revolution” in a political science can be proved and arguments of other sort: 1) postindustrial modernisation of the modern world has shown insufficiency of analytical methods of the politological classics based on interests, and necessity of the reference to values and to their role in sociopolitical transformations; 2) in the conditions of transit, transitive relations (from индустриализма to an information society) increasing threat of public destabilization and disintegration of social communications put in the forefront not representation, going from a civil society, policy function, and интеграционистские, going from the state as opposition tool to social chaos; 3) the concept of a society prevailing in the western political science as sets of "reasonable egoists”, entering relations of a mutually advantageous exchange, even more often encountered the priorities which have collectivist character and not reduced to concept of individualism.
Inability of the political theory which has developed in the western science to reflect similar “collective essence” testified to its known limitation. All is more persistently brought by many social scientists of the world an attention to the question that the developed western political theory reflects not so much универсалии the world political, how many socially-tsivilizatsionnuju specificity of the euro-Atlantic region in this connection development not so regionalno-European or American, and really world-wide and historical experience of political development of mankind became the main task of modern political science. The decision of these problems had actively joined the Russian political science. In 1990 it again enter into number of disciplines studied in the Russian high schools. Political science development in the Russian Federation can be divided into three periods: 1991-1994 - the period of an apprenticeship and development of the basic achievements of the western political science; 1995 - 1998 - End of formation round magazines "Policies", «Free thought», «Sociopolitical magazine», "Dialogue" of communities of the domestic political scientists professing a wide spectrum of ideas and adhering various методологий. During this and subsequent period there are theoretical works of the Russian authors, on a circle and depth of cases in point leaving on level of a world political science and even opening in it new ways of research and offering original concepts and theories.
VIII. The Political science as an independent science has the object and a specific subject of knowledge. Object of political science are all sphere of political relations in a society, that is set of all objects of political activity, first of all the states. An important subject of political science is such multiplane public phenomenon, as the political power. Known American political scientist Harold Lassuell (1902-1978) even asserted that “when we speak about a science in policy area we mean a science about the power”. Concrete researches of political institutes, the analysis of situations, subjects and objects of a policy concern number of prime employment of political science also to working out of the theory and methods of political activity.
Political science subjectare laws of formation and development of the political power, the form and methods of its functioning and use. The most general laws concern formation, development and change of political systems, категориального the device, the most essential and steady tendencies in displays and use of the political power. Depending on sphere the displays established by a political science of law can be divided into four groups:
- Political-economical laws of occurrence, functioning and development of political interests, concepts, the theories which are finding out a parity between a policy and economy;
- The sociopolitical laws causing functioning of the political power. The main thing in maintenance of stability of a society with it - the account of interests and requirements of various elements of its social structure, a finding of ways of harmonisation of these interests, destruction or softening of antagonisms, conflict situations, the crisis phenomena.
- Laws of functioning and development of political process: a priority universal over class and party in the politician; leadership of the law for all members of a society, division of the authorities; publicity in activity of the state and public organisations; political pluralism etc.;
- Politiko-psychological laws reflect relations between the person and the power and incorporate processes of political socialisation of the person, formation of political feelings, moods, valuable orientations, ways of influence on voters, formations of political leaders, gains and deduction of the power by them etc.
IX. At studying of the political phenomena and processes the political science uses various methods of research, characteristic for all social sciences. But there are such methods which in aggregate with others transform political science into independent scientific discipline. It, first of all, a system method, бихевиористский the approach (a special way of the analysis of the political phenomena through studying of behaviour of individuals and groups at execution of certain political roles by them), quantitative methods (statistical researches of political activity; biographical researches and polls; laboratory experiments, especially in sphere of the international relations), comparative techniques.
In the political analysis also such new methods, as cybernetic (the policy analysis through a prism of the information streams constructed on a principle of feedback, and networks of purposeful communicative actions and the mechanisms providing the relations of mutual relations operating and operated at all levels in a society and with environment) now are actively used; 2) communicative (disclosing of properties of a policy through studying of ways of dialogue of people developing in political space); 3) politiko-cultural (the researches which have put in the basis of a policy subjective orientations of elite and mass subjects to political objects which according to them altered forms of the behaviour, character of activity of political institutes and other parametres of functioning of the power), etc.