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Chapter 1 - THEORY OF ECOLOGY
Ecology and safety is scientific and practical course that studies aspects of safety and ecology in interactions between organisms and their natural environment.
Purpose of the course: providing students with appropriate to modern life knowledge of hazards, emergencies, their characteristics and possible biological effects, practical risk management and protection of environment.
Objectives of the course: studying sources of environment contamination and its health effect; learning practical environmental protection and safety in emergency situations.
Subject: safety and ecology in interactions between people and their natural environment.
At completion of the reading students will have knowledge of:
- ecology and safety terms;
- characteristics of environment and its contamination;
- procedure of risk management;
- emergency management;
- provision of a first aid service;
- properties of protective equipment.
At the end of this course students will be able to:
- assess contamination of environment;
- identify potential hazards, their type, intensity, source and location;
- assess the risk of an accident, its likelihood, consequences and rating;
- apply the risk controls to improve level of industrial safety and ecology;
- use personal protective equipment and equipment to protect personnel and people from technical accidents and natural disasters .
Ecosystem (biogeocenosis): a system involving the interactions between a community and its non-living environment.
Biogeocenosis includes biotope and biocenosis.
Biotope: a small area that supports its own distinctive community.
Biocenosis: a diverse community inhabiting a single biotope.
Ecological factors: any environmental condition able to produce direct or indirect effect on community and its interaction.
- abiotic – influence of non-living environment;
- biotic – action of living organisms;
- anthropogenic – man’s impact;
- technogenic – industrial impact.
Ecology axioms of Commoner:
- everything is interconnected;
- everything should get somewhere;
- nothing comes for free;
- nature knows better.
Multitude law: many occasional factors produce result, which is not assumed occasional.
Correlation law: all parts of one organism are interconnected, that’s why changes in one part cause changes in the others.
Le-Shatelie – Braun principle: if system is exposed to external factor, that takes it to imbalance, balance tends to condition reducing effect of external factor.
Law of minimum (the first law in history of ecology): living potential is limited by that environmental factor which is in minimum.
Tolerance law: adds law of minimum and asserts that both minimum and maximum of environmental factors could be limiting.
Diapason between minimum and maximum defines zone of optimum.
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