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Psychological characteristics of speech


Lecture 10 Teaching dialog

Questions and topics for discussion

  1. Why is teaching listening important? Why is it difficult?
  2. Speak on the three stages in teaching listening. What tasks and activities are used at each stage?
  3. How can the lesson for teaching listening organized?
  4. Examine one of the lessons in the standard textbook and show how listening is taught.
  5. What is the difference between using audio tape and video tape? What video techniques can the teacher use?
  6. How can listening skills be tested? Illustrate your answer with examples.


1. Psychological characteristics of speech

2. Linguistic peculiarities of dialogs. Main dialog structures

3. Stages in teaching dialog.

4. Pair and group work. Procedure for role play


  1. Speech must be motivated-the teacher should think over the motives which make learners speak. They should have a necessity to speak and not only a desire to receive a good mark. The teacher should ensure conditions in which a learner will have a desire to say something in a foreign language, to express his thoughts and feelings.

There are two kinds of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic.

Intrinsic is the motivation that comes from within. Students who have intrinsic motivation see the education as something deeper than just getting good marks or a good job.

Extrinsic motivation is the opposite. It comes from the outside. Students who have extrinsic motivation think only about getting a diploma .

  1. speech is always addressed to an interlocutor- when speaking a learner should address the class, and not the teacher
  2. Speech is always emotionally colored- learners should be taught to express their attitudes, feelings about what they say. That can be done by giving such tasks as: say, why you like the story; prove that…; give your opinion on the episode; solve the problem; agree/disagree; etc.
  3. speech is always situational- To stimulate students’ speech the teacher creates real or imaginary situations

Speech exists in its main forms: dialog (2-3 speakers), polylog (group of speakers), monolog (1 speaker) .


  1. Linguistic peculiarities of dialogs. Main dialog structures

Linguistic peculiarities of dialogs are:

· The use of incomplete sentences(ellipses) in responses:

-How many books have you got?


-Who has done it?

-Ann has.

· The use of contracted forms: doesn’t; can’t; etc.

· The use of some abbreviations: lab; maths; p.m.; etc.

· The use of conversational tags. These are the words the speaker uses when he wishes to speak without saying anything. For example: well; you know.

· Besides, the learners need words to start, to carry on and to finish the conversation. For example: I think; as far as I know; to tell the truth; what about? And so on.


The main dialog structures are:

1 question-response

-Hello. What’s your name?

-Ann. What’s yours?

-My name is William

2. question-question

- Will you help me, dear?

-What shall I do, Mum?

-Will you do the room?

-Is it my turn?

-Yes, it is. You brother did it last time.

3. statement-statement

-I’d like to know when he is going to come and see us.

-That’s difficult to say. He is always promising, but never comes.

-It’s because he is very busy.

-That’s right. He works hard.

4. statement-question

-I’m going to the theatre tonight.

-Where did you get tickets?

-My friend got them somewhere

-How did he do it?

- I don’t know.


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