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BLENDING


Abbreviation Mechanism

Abbreviation Types

Graphic abbreviationis the shortened form of a wordor phraseused only in written speech to represent the whole.

E.g., Dr. (doctor), B.C. (before Christ), c.b. (cash book), Ice. (Iceland), s.s. (sections), vltg. (voltage), wt (warrant; weight; without), e.g. (Lat. exempli gratia: for example), Cu (Chem. Lat. cuprum: copper)

Acronym is a wordformed from the first letter or letters of words in a phraseand pronounced as an ordinary English word. Acronyms are used in all types of speech.

Eg., EXTEND (Exercise Training for the Elderly and/or Disabled), GEMS (Global Environmental Monitoring System [in the UN]), SWALK (Sealed With A Loving Kiss [on envelopes]), YIP (US [a member of the] Youth International Party)

Initialism is a wordformed from the first letter or letters of words in a phraseand pronounced as a series of letters. Initialisms are used in all types of speech.

E.g., ACT (American College Test), NNS (Nonmetalic Sheathed Cable), PCI (a Potential Criminal Informant), SOL (USSl: Shit Out of luck), TGIF (Thank God It's Friday)

ClippedForm is an independent wordformed by dropping one or more syllables from a longer word or phrase.

E.g., deb (debutante), fridge (refridgerator), phone (telephone), deli (delicatessen), flu (influenza)

 

Apocope (final clipping) is the loss or omission of one or more letters or syllables at the end of a wordor phrase, or words in a phrase.

E.g., amp (ampere), co-op (co-operative), act. (actual), sp vol (specific volume), NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), n.p.p. (no passed proof)

Syncope (medial clipping) is the loss or omission of one or more letters or syllables from the middle of a wordor phrase.

E.g., maths (mathematics), fancy (fantasy), ma'am (madam), intl (international), jnt stk (joint stock), mge (message), Dr. (doctor)

Apheresis(initial clipping) is the loss or omission of one or more letters or syllables at the beginning of a wordor phrase.



E.g., squire (esquire), count (account), phone (telephone), plane (aeroplane), tend (attend), fend (defend)

Apocope + Apheresis

E.g., flu (influenza), frig (refrigerator)

Apocope + Syncope (Syncope + Apocope)

E.g., sm. caps. (Printing: small capitals), Lt-Col (Lieutenant-Colonel), Beds (Bedfordshire)

Apheresis+ Syncope

E.g., x'd (executed), xlnt (excellent)

 

 

 

Blending is the wordformation process combining abbreviationand compounding.

Blend (portmanteau) is a wordwhose second constituentis always represented by an aphaeretic[1] stem; the first constituentmay be represented by a non-clipped, apocopated[2] or syncopated[3] stem. Non-clippedstems may form a blendif they have a telescopic syllable in common.

E.g., cinemactress = cinemA + Actress

guesstimate = guess + estimate

smog = smoke + fog

Additive Blend is transformable into a phraseconsisting of the respective non-clippedstems combined by the conjunction AND.

E.g., SMOG: a mixture of SMOKE AND FOG.

Restrictive Blend is transformable into an attributive phrasewith the first element serving as modifier of the second.

E.g., spam = spiced ham

telecast = television broadcast

pulsar = pulsating stellar

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ABBREVIATION | TIME AXIS DIFFERENTIATION

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