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LECTURE 1 – BASIC CONCEPTS OF ELT METHODOLOGY:
Aims & objectives:
· To introduce the aims of the course, the place of the course in the curriculum, and key concepts of ELT;
· Students should be able to identify definitions and make a list of ELT topics they will study in this course.
Discipline, course, approach, method, technique, ELT
· Introduction to the course objectives and ELT-related topics and questions
This course should involve following topics (with students’ contribution) to prepare candidates for teaching English:
Different methods of teaching
Theoretical and practical considerations of TEFL
Some useful teaching tips
Planning (a lesson, an ELT course, ..)
Techniques to deal with disruptive student behaviour
Motivational aspects of ELT
Use of ELT materials
Use of technology in ELT
Evaluation and selection of ELT materials
Characteristics of good language teachers/learners
How to teach learning
How to teach four skills; reading, writing, listening, speaking
How to teach supplementary skills; grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation
Developing teaching skills
Strategies of professional development
· Description of basic ELT terms:
Course, Textbook, Materials, Audiovisual,
Four Skills of Language Learning
Approach, method, technique
Behavioristic Approaches to Learning
The Audiolingual Method
ELT: English Language Teaching
ESP: English for Specific Purposes
ESL: English as a Second Language , EFL: English as a Foreign Language
TEFL: Teaching English as a Foreign Language
TESOL: Teaching English to the Speakers of Other Languages
CALL: Computer Assisted Language Learning
ICT: Information Communication Technologies
TPR: Total Physical Response
L1 – L2: First Language-Second Language
· What are the objectives of a contemporary TEFL methodology course?
· What are your personal interests in TEFL? Why did you choose to be a foreign language teacher? What kind of teacher would you like to be?
· How is ‘a technique, a method and an approach’ described in language teaching? Give examples for each of them.
Conclusion:The stages of development in FLT methodology have been summarized by the SU scholars mainly as follows:
· Towards the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century “grammar-translation” and “text-based translation” methods (P. Glieder, G. Langenscheicht) based on comparative-contrastive linguistics and associationist psychology
· Reform movement
· Natural Method (F. Gouin, M. Berlitz, M. Voltaire)
· Direct Method (H. Sweet, V. Vietor)
· Oral Method (H. Palmer)
· ALM (G. Frees, R. Lado, H. Brooks)
· Audio-visual Method (R. Guberina, P. Rivan, R. Michael)
· M. West’s method
· Mixed method (P. Humboldt, F. Klose, etc)
· Cognitive comparative method (И.А. Грузинская, З.М. Цветкова А. А. Миролюбов, В.С. Цетлин, etc.)
· Active Methods of FLT (Э.П. Шубин, И.Н. Горелов, etc.)
· Communicative Method (Е. И. Пассаов, etc.)
· Communicative speech act (И.Л. Бим , etc.)
However, a more global approach that includes the contemporary methods of foreign language teaching (ELT/TESOL) in Europe and North America will be covered in this course.
Richards, Jack C. and Rodgers, Theodore S. 1982. “Method: Approach, design and procedure.” TESOL Quarterly 16: 153-68
Richards, Jack C. and Rodgers, Theodore S. 2001 (2nd edition) Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.1-19
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LECTURE 2 – CRITICAL-HISTORICAL OVERVIEW 1:
METHODS OF FLT/ELT UNTIL EARLY 20TH CENTURY (Before WW II)
Aims & objectives:
· To introduce classical methods of foreign language teaching; grammar-translation method
· Students should be able to summarize the features of the grammar-translation method
· Students should be able to tell the class why GT would not be a good choice of FLT nowadays.
Inductive vs deductive approaches to teaching grammar
· The Grammar-Translation Method (19th Century)
The grammar translation method was the prominent teaching method in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: With “a focus on grammatical rules, memorization of vocabulary … translations of texts and doing written exercise,” (Brown, 2000:15) it provided a means for scholarly instruction and reading proficiency, but scant time for oral practice. Students learned ‘about’ the language but not how ‘use’ it. Prator and Celce-Murcia (1979) in Brown, (2000: 15) outline the main features of the method:
- Teacher uses FL a large majority of the time giving minimal reference to target language.
- Vocabulary is taught in lists and out of context.
- Complexities of grammar are explicated in long detail.
- Form and inflection are the focal point of grammar instruction and correct sentences are created by
following grammatical rules.
- High level of reading material is introduced early.
- Text reading is used for grammatical analysis and content is considered secondary.
- Drills consist of translating sentences taken out of context.
- Little if any pronunciation practice.
· In which method of foreign language teaching does the teacher ask students in their first language (ie Russian) if they have any questions, and if a student asks a question, the teacher answers it in Russian? (For example, students learn that English ‘-ion’ corresponds to '-ция’ in Russian)
· In which method of foreign language teaching is the ability to communicate in the target language not a goal of language instruction?
· What are the goals for learning a foreign language according to the Grammar Translation Method?
· How is the Grammar Translation Method criticized? Write your answer in no more than three statements.
Despite its persistent worldwide popularity, Richards and Rodgers (1986) in Brown (2000: 16) point out “it has no advocates…there is no literature that offers a rationale or justification for it…” Of all the methods used in the classroom, this one bears the least resemblance to learning a foreign language.
Brown, H. D. (2000) Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. White Plains: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 4th ed. p.15
Prator, C.H. and Celce-Murcia, M. (1979) An Outline of Language Teaching Approaches.
In Celce-Murcia, M. and McIntosh, L. (Ed.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. New York: Newbury House.
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