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Think of some durable consumer goods that your family possesses – perhaps a car, a television, a stereo, a camera, a personal computer, a cooker, a fridge, a hair dryer, and so on. Think of your casual clothes, especially jeans and sports shoes. Think of toys you had as a child. Think of the brands of food and drink you habitually consume, including breakfast cereals, chocolate, tea and instant coffee. Think of the products you use to wash yourself and your clothes.

In each case, do you know whether the company that makes them is one of the following?

– the market leader (with the biggest market share);

– the market challenger (the second-biggest company in the industry);

– one of many smaller market followers.

If you buy or have bought products that are notproduced by the market leader or a well-known market challenger, what is the reason?

– chance;

– price;

– because the product has a unique selling proposition that appeals to you;

– because you need something special.




Text 1

1. How many parts are there in the reading?

2. Identify the headings. What do they tell you about the topic of this reading?

3. What do you already know about the topic?


Market Structures

Market structure is determined primarily by (1) the number of firms selling in the market; (2) the extent to which the products of different firms in the market are the same or different; (3) the ease with which firms can enter into or exit from the market. Based on these three criteria, economists usually group market structures into four basic categories: (1) pure competition; (2) monopoly; (3) oligopoly; and (4) monopolistic competition. Let us examine each of these market structures.

Pure Competition

The main characteristics of the pure competition are:

1. Many sellers: There are many sellers, and each firm is so small relative to the entire market that its actions will have no effect on the price of its product. Instead, it must accept the going market price, established by the forces of supply and demand.

2. Standardized product: The products of the various firms in the market are so nearly identical that buyers do not prefer the product of any one firm over that of any other firm.

3. Easy entry and exit: There are no significant financial, legal, technological, or other barriers to prevent new firms from entering the market or to prevent existing firms from leaving the market. Firms are free to enter and leave the market at will.

4. No artificial restrictions: There are no wage and price controls, minimum wage laws, labour unions, or other artificial restrictions on the free movement of prices and wages up and down.

Pure competition has its limitations. Although it works well in an industry such as agriculture, it is not practical for all markets and all industries. Nevertheless, since competition is the controlling mechanism of a market economy, a high degree of competition is usually desirable in most markets.

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