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Lesson 1. Task 1. a)The word “TRADE” has a wide range of meanings:


Task 1. a)The word “TRADE” has a wide range of meanings:

b) Which meaning of the word is revealed in the following sentences?

1. Global trade in manufactured goods has increased dramatically.

2. The two leaders signed agreements on trade and sporting links.

3. Both countries are willing to develop trade with each other.

4. Butchers are doing a roaring trade these days.

5. The trade could do more to help its workers.

6. I have been in jewelry trade for 20 years.

7. He learned his trade in the 1980s.

Task 2.Study the etymology of the word “TRADE”.

Etymology: TRADE  
Old High German tratatrack → Old Saxon trada → Middle English(the 14th century) tread course, path, track (hence, a regular business)

Task 3. a)Study the synonyms of “TRADE”.


Synonyms of TRADE
commerce; buying and selling; dealing; business; market; marketing; merchandising; barter; industry;   deals; dealings; transactions; contracts; traffic; trafficking; truck; clientele; customers;     craft; occupation; job; career; profession; line (of work); métier [`metieı] (фр. заняття; професія, фах, ремесло); vocation; calling; walk of life; field; work; employment;


b) In the sentences below substitute the words in italics for their synonyms in a).


1.Tom was forty and he was sorry that he hadn’t learned a trade in due time. 2.They’ve completely ruined the tourist trade for the next few years. 3.Trade between the two countries has increased. 4.He learnt his trade as a diver in the North Sea. 5.He’s a designer by trade. 6.They introduced novelties for the tourist trade. 7.The US was accused of unfair trade practices. 8.I think our products will appeal to your trade. 9.Ukraine conducts trade with many countries. 10.It has been a bad year for the retail trade. 11.His father was in trade. 12.I am willing to make a trade with you. 13.They represent the wool-len trade. 14.Our company has a lot of trade. 15.He is a jeweller by trade.

Task 4. Make the difference between the following words.

These words are combined with other nouns to describe particular areas of commercial activity, but they tend to be used in different contexts.   · Business is often used when talking about the activities of particular individuals or companies: I always knew I wanted to work in the restaurant business. The company has returned to what it knows best: the car business.   · Industry is common when talking about the economy: The country is trying to rebuild its oil industry.   · Trade is combined with only a small number of nouns. It is used especially about traditional types of business, for example: the art / book trade; the retail trade (= running a shop / store, supermarket, etc.). It is also the word used when describing illegal forms of business: the illegal diamonds / drugs trade.

Task 5. a)The words below frequently occur after “TRADE”.


b) Which of the above word combinations means:

· a disagreement between countries in which they take action to damage each other’s trade;

· a name that is used by a particular company; a name that a company gives to a product; a word that is used for something within a particular industry but is not well known outside the industry;

· a piece of information, for example the method of making a product, that a company does not want other companies to know;

· a situation in which the value of a country’s exports is greater than the value of its imports;

· a situation in which the value of a country’s imports is greater than the value of its exports; the amount by which the two values are different;

· a wind blowing obliquely (під кутом) towards the equator either from the northeast in the northern hemisphere or the southeast in the southern hemisphere, approximately between latitudes 30° N and S, forming part of the planetary wind system;

· an action by a government that makes free trade between its own country and other countries more difficult or impossible (e.g. tariffs, quotas, embargoes, and sanctions);

· an event at which many different companies producing related products show and sell their products?

Task 6.Give the English equivalents for:


1. Пасат (вітер);

2. торгова війна;

3. зовнішньоторговельний дефіцит;

4. фірмова (торгівельна) назва товару; назва фірми;

5. виробничий секрет; професійна таємниця; “секрет фірми”;

6. активне сальдо торговельного балансу; активний торговельний баланс;

7. торговий бар’єр, торговельні обмеження; перепони на шляху розвитку торгівлі;

8. торговельний ярмарок; виставка-продаж (демонстрація різноманіт-них товарів на ярмарку, після завершення якого всі виставлені зразки, як правило, розпродуються);


Task 7. Translate into Ukrainian.


1.The country posted (оголосила) a trade deficit of $1.5 billion in January. 2.The company uses the trade name Marubeni in the US. 3.The recipe [`resəpi] for the drink is a closely guarded trade secret. 4.They have managed to maintain a large trade surplus. 5.The European Commission called for talks to try to avert a trade war with the US. 6.Antitrades (антипасати – у тропічних широтах перенесення повітря в західному напрямку поверх шару східних вітрів) are winds in the upper atmosphere blowing in the opposite direction from and above the trade winds. 7.The international trade fair was a great success. 8.The most common trade barriers include tariffs, quotas, embargoes, and sanctions.


Task 8.Think and answer.

1. Do trade winds blow in Ukraine?

2. Have you ever visited trade fairs?

3. How can a country reduce its trade deficit?

4. Why do exports from developing countries face higher trade barriers than products from developed countries?

5. What makes countries agree to lower trade barriers to some imports?

6. Have you ever played Trade Wars, the pre-eminent BBC game, played by tens of thousands of computer enthusiasts around the world?

7. Do you think trade wars are productive and increase the economic welfare and total social surplus of all nations involved?

8. Can the threat of a trade war be helpful in winning a concession of some sort from the other side?

9. Why do companies typically invest money, time and energy (work) into generating and keeping trade secrets?

Task 9. a) Match the terms in column A with their definitions in column Bpaying attention to the underlined words.

1. shopkeeper 2. distributor 3. wholesaler 4. merchant 5. supplier 6. retailer 7. vendor 8. trader 9. dealer 10. seller a)a person or company that sells something; b)a person or business that sells goods to the public; c)a person who owns or manages a shop, usually a small one; d)a person or business that distributes goods produced by other companies to shops or directly to the public; e)a person whose job is to trade in goods or stocks; a person who buys and sells goods, currency, or shares; f)a person or business that buys goods in large quantities and sells them in smaller amounts to businesses so they can be sold again to make a profit; g)(in historical contexts) a person involved in trade or commerce; a person who buys and sells goods in large quantities, especially one who imports and exports goods; h)someone who sells things such as newspapers, cigarettes, or food from a small stall or cart; person or company offering something for sale, especially a trader in the street; i)a person who deals in buying and selling a particular product; most frequently used to talk about people who buy and sell art, antiques, cars or arms; j)a company that provides raw materials or pieces of equipment to companies that make goods; a person, company, or organization that sells or supplies something such as goods or equipment to customers;

b) Which of the above terms means:

1. постачальник;

2. роздрібний торговець;

3. крамар; власник магазину;

4. оптовик, оптовий торговець;

5. дистриб’ютор, агент з продажу;

6. торговець, продавець; ходовий товар;

7. купець; торговець, крамар (особл. оптовий);

8. торговець, дилер, посередник, розповсюджувач;

9. трейдер; торговець (особливо оптовий); біржовий маклер;

10. продавець, торговець, рознощик (морозива, газет); торговельний апарат?

Task 10.Translate into Ukrainian:

1. He’s a dealerin second-hand cars.

2. Return the unit to your dealer for repair.

3. Contact your dealer for more information.

4. She set up in business as an antiques dealer.

5. She’s a dealer in the financial futures market.

6. Being a sole traderis a risky venture.

7. Numerous risks are taken every day by currency traders.

8. Many of the small local traders have been forced to close.

9. They are a leading supplier of computers in the UK.

10. You will need to be able to deal with both customers and suppliers.

11. The law is intended to protect both the buyer and the seller.

12. She stopped to buy a bunch of violets from a flower seller in the market square.

13. Venice [`venıs] was once a city of rich merchants.

14. He was the eldest son of a wealthy wine merchant.

15. They are one of the country’s largest food retailers.

16. Jewellery, leather and clothes are offered by street vendors at every corner.

17. The cost to the vendor of selling land by auction is normally higher than by private treaty.

18. Get a list of vendors who deliver frozen food.

19. They are Japan’s largest software distributor.

20. The majority of stock is bought through wholesalers, before being repackaged for retailing to the public.

21. He is a village shopkeeper.


Task 11. Study the following words.

· Supplier has a wider range of uses than distributor. Supplier can be used to talk about any company that sells goods to businesses and shops. A supplier might be the company that makes the goods – the manufacturer – or the company that sells raw materials to the manufacturer. · A distributor works with a manufacturer, buying the goods they have made and selling them to shops. · A company can be both a supplier and a distributor, depending on your point of view: the manufacturer whose goods they sell will see them as the distributor of their goods; the business that buys from them will see them as the supplier of their materials or equipment.

Task 12. a) Define the meaning of the word “трейдер” in Ukrainian. Let the following headlines from Ukrainian mass media be your clues.

1. “Американські трейдери зайнялися високошвидкісною торгівлею.” 2. “Йде постійне витіснення незалежних трейдерів.” 3. “Трейдер – шкідлива робота?” 4. “Чого не знають трейдери.” 5. “У країні дорожчає цукор. Прем’єр звинувачує міністрів, а ті – трейдерів.” 6. “Думка трейдера не завжди правильна.” 7. “Європейська пшениця: На думку трейдерів, фундаментальних передумов для зростання цін немає.” 8. “МВФ вселив упевненість у трейдерів.” 9. “Найкращий Інтернет-трейдер заробив майже 65% за місяць.” 10. “Змова вітчизняних трейдерів не дозволяє агропромисловому комплексу отримати добрий прибуток.” 11. “Провідний трейдер нержавіючої сталі відновив обсяги продажу.” 12. “Антимонопольний комітет звинуватив нафтотрейдерів у змові.” 13. “Газові трейдери задоволені ситуацією на ринку.”


b) Think and answer.

1. What do traders usually deal in? Are they involved in production?

2. Do governments supervise their activities? Why?

3. Can traders affect prices in the markets? In what way?

4. In what markets are traders most active these days? Why?

5. Do traders contribute to the social welfare?


Task 13. Practice reading the following words.


1. abstract[`æbstrækt] 2. advantage[əd`vα:ntıG] / [əd`væntıG] 3. aspect [`æspekt] 4. century[`sentəri] 5. commerce [`kOmə:s] / [`kα:mərs] 6. comparative [kəm`pærətıv] 7. to comprehend [ֽkOmprı`hend] / [ֽkα:mprı`hend] 8. to concentrate[`kOntsəntreıt] / [`kα:ntsəntreıt] 9. currency[`kArəntsi] 10. division [dı`vıჳən] 11. due[dju:] / [du:] 12. entity [`entəti] 13. to exist [ıg`zıst] 14. facility [fə`sıləti] 15. fairly [`feəli] / [`ferli] 16. mass [mæs] 17. merchandise [`mə:t∫əndaız] 18. to negotiate [nı`gəu∫ieıt] / [nı`gou∫ieıt] 19. to originate [ə`rıGəneıt] 20. prehistoric [ֽpri:hı`stOrık] / [ֽpri:hı`stO:rık] 21. primarily [praı`merəli] 22. primitive [`prımətıv] 23. simplified [`sımplıfaıd] 24. specialization [ֽspe∫əlaı`zeı∫ən] / [ֽspe∫ələ`zeı∫ən] 25. species[`spi:∫i:z] 26. specific [spə`sıfık] 27. sugar [`∫ugə] / [`∫ugər] 28. tradable [`treıdəbəl] 29. value [`vælju:] 30. varied [`veərid] [`verid] 31. whereas[weər`æz] / [hwer`æz] 32. wholesale [`həulseıəl]

Task 14. Read the text.


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