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IV. Choose 5 any words from the vocabulary and make your own sentences with them
II. Match the words and their definitions
I. Read and learn the following words
● deliberately [di`libərətli] специально ● design [di`zain] разрабатывать ● imagery [`imidʒəri] воображение ● association [ə,səusi`ei∫n] ассоциация ● meaning [`mi:niŋ] значение ● involve [in`vÉlv] включать ● integrate [`intigreitid] объединенный ● aid [eid] помогать ● bizarre [bi`za:] странный, необычный ● concept [`kÉnsept] идея ● contain [kÉn`tein] содержать ● device [di`vais] прием ● peg [peg] прищепка ● memorize [`meməraiz] запоминать ● to interacting [,intər`ækt] взаимодействовать ● correspond [kÉris`pÉnd] соответствовать ● strand [strænd] пить ● limb [lim] ветвь (дерева) ● recitation [,resi`tei∫n] повторение.
III. Find synonyms for the following words:
Design, involve, to aid, concept, device, correspond, limb, meaning, integrate, bizarre
V. Complete the table:
VI. Read the text “Mnemonic Systems”
Any of us can improve our ability to remember by adopting mnemonic system. These are strategies deliberately designed to help people remember. Mnemonic systems organize information so that it can be easily stored and retrieved. They use imagery, association and meaning, the brain’s basic tools. People who learn to use mnemonics gain two advantages. First, they can memorize lists of facts more efficiently, freeing their minds for tasks that involve thought and creativity. Second, because they are good at remembering facts, they can develop a strong base of information to draw on when reasoning and solving problem.
“One picture is worth a thousand words”. Many popular mnemonic systems involve the use of imagery. These methods work particularly well when several images are woven into a meaningful, integrated scene. For example, you might remember the pair of words “gorilla piccolo” by imagining a gorilla playing a piccolo. Images need not be as bizarre as this to aid memory; ordinary scenes work just as well.
Unfortunately, imagery doesn’t work as well when the words to remember are abstract ones. It is harder to think of an image to represent an abstract concept; and even when you do, the image can usually stand for a number of other things. Let’s look at some examples of mnemonic systems that involve the use of imagery.
“Method of Loci”
This system employs a series of loci (Latin for places) that are firmly fixed in memory – like places along a route to go home. To remember a list of words, you create a mental image for each of the words and “place” each image in one of your loci. Then to recall the list, you take a “walk” past your loci and see what images they contain.
“Peg-word system”. A similar mnemonic device is the peg-word system, which requires you to memorize ten or more simple words. Once memorized, these words act as pegs upon which a series of items to be remembered can be hung. Each item on a list to be recalled is visualized as interacting with the corresponding peg word. Suppose you want to remember a shopping list – tomato soup, potatoes, spaghetti. Imagine potatoes resting inside a shoe, strands of spaghetti hanging over a tree limb. Once you are in the market, you run through the peg words and retrieve the related images. This method, like the method of loci, is effective because it gives you a device for systematically storing information and later generating retrieval cues for it.
“Key-word system”. Imagery is also the basis of the key-word system, which is useful for learning foreign vocabulary. For example, to learn the French word “peau”, which means “skin” (pronounced “poe”), you might recollect the surname of the famous American writer Edgar Allan Poe. Students who use the key-word method learn almost twice as many words in the same study time as do students who use rote memorization. The system works best when an instructor suggests the key words and leaves the students to create their own images.
If you have only a limited time to study, you should devote a large portion of it to recitation – that is, to actively recalling the information you want to remember. This gives you a chance to try out your memory, see how you perform, and correct any mistakes. It was found that the more time a person devoted to active, recitation, the more he could later recall.
VII. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
1. Mnemonic systems organize information so that it can be easily retrieved.
2. People who learn to use mnemonics gain 5 advantages.
3. Imagery works well when the words to remember are abstract ones.
4. It is simple to think of an image to represent an abstract concept, because it usually stands for only one thing.
5. To remember the list of words, using the method of loci you create a mental image for each of the words and place each image into your loci.
6. Peg-word system requires you to memorize 5 or more difficult words.
7. Imagery is also the basis of the key-word system, which is useful for learning foreign vocabulary.
8. It was found that the more time a person devoted to active recitation, the more he could later recall.
VIII. Answer the following questions:
1. Are there any mnemonic strategies which help people to remember things?
2. What brain’s basic tools does mnemonic system use to organize and memorize information?
3. What advantages do people who use mnemonics gain?
4. Many popular mnemonic systems involve the use of imagery, don’t they? How does it work?
5. What is “the method of loci”?
6. What is “Peg-word system”?
7. What system is useful for learning foreign vocabulary?
8. Which method will you choose if you have a limited time to study?
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