Архитектура-(3434)Астрономия-(809)Биология-(7483)Биотехнологии-(1457)Военное дело-(14632)Высокие технологии-(1363)География-(913)Геология-(1438)Государство-(451)Демография-(1065)Дом-(47672)Журналистика и СМИ-(912)Изобретательство-(14524)Иностранные языки-(4268)Информатика-(17799)Искусство-(1338)История-(13644)Компьютеры-(11121)Косметика-(55)Кулинария-(373)Культура-(8427)Лингвистика-(374)Литература-(1642)Маркетинг-(23702)Математика-(16968)Машиностроение-(1700)Медицина-(12668)Менеджмент-(24684)Механика-(15423)Науковедение-(506)Образование-(11852)Охрана труда-(3308)Педагогика-(5571)Полиграфия-(1312)Политика-(7869)Право-(5454)Приборостроение-(1369)Программирование-(2801)Производство-(97182)Промышленность-(8706)Психология-(18388)Религия-(3217)Связь-(10668)Сельское хозяйство-(299)Социология-(6455)Спорт-(42831)Строительство-(4793)Торговля-(5050)Транспорт-(2929)Туризм-(1568)Физика-(3942)Философия-(17015)Финансы-(26596)Химия-(22929)Экология-(12095)Экономика-(9961)Электроника-(8441)Электротехника-(4623)Энергетика-(12629)Юриспруденция-(1492)Ядерная техника-(1748)
ENGINE AND LADDER COMPANIES
The two basic firefighting units in most fire departments are engine companies and ladder companies. Engine companies operate trucks called pumpers, which carry a pump and hoses for spraying water on a fire. Ladder companies use ladder trucks, which carry an extension ladder or elevating platform to rescue people through the windows of building. Ladder truck also has other rescue equipment and firefighting tools.
In most large cities each fire station has at least one engine company. At a fire, the members of the engine and ladder companies work together as a team under the direction of an officer. Fire departments must handle many types of fires. Each type requires a different plan of action to put it out.
After an alarm is received, the engine and ladder companies speed to the fire. They often arrive within a few minutes after receiving the alarm. The officer in command quickly appraises the situation and directs the firefighters into action. The members connect a hose from the pump to a nearby fire hydrant. Then they stretch hose lines from the pump to the building on fire. Their first concern is to keep the fire from spreading. The firefighters spray water on any nearby buildings that are in danger of catching fire. Then they direct water on the fire itself until it is out.
The members of the ladder company search for people who may be trapped in the building. In some buildings, ladders are used to rescue people through windows. However, the ladders on most trucks extend up to only about eight storeyes. Firefighters must use elevators or stairs to get to persons trapped on floors above the reach of the ladders.
Ladder company members must also ventilate the building to let out the smoke, heat, and gases that build up during the fire. They open or break windows and sometimes cut holes in the roof or walls. If the building is not ventilated, the heat and pressure of the gases can cause an explosion. The ladder company tries to save any furniture or other property not damaged by the fire. The members spread rubber covers over such property to prevent water damage. Finally, the ladder company searches the building for hidden sparks that can cause another blaze.
1. To suppress – to destroy or bring to an end by force, prevent or inhibit (a process or phenomenon).
To put out – to cause to stop burning.
To extinguish – to put out a light or fire.
To fight – to try to prevent, stand against.
2. Quick – характеризує людей, які діють без затримки в даній ситуації (at work, to act, in decision, to learn).
Rapid – fast, happening, moving or doing something at a great speed (recovery, succession, results, growth, rapid change).
Fast – moving or able to move quickly; taking a short time compared to other people or things.
Prompt – (of an action) done quickly, at once, or at the right time, (of a person) arriving at the right time, punctual, quick to take action, до значення “діяти швидко, без затримки” додає вказівку на те, що швидкість реакції набута тренуванням (assistant, in attack, to carry out an order, payment, to criticize, to answer).
Swift– moving or able to move at great speed, without effort; ready or quick in action (runner, reply, retribution, denial).
Ready– quick (of the powers of the mind), властивість, отримана шляхом тренування і вказує на майстерність, легкість у виконанні дії (hand, speaker, wit, understanding of the problem).
3. Injury – harm, damage to a living thing; a physical hurt or wound, especially when such weapons as a heavy stick or bomb is used or caused accidentally.
Harm – physical injury, especially that which is deliberately inflicted, material damage, actual or potential ill effect.
Damage – 1) the process of spoiling the condition or quality of something; unwelcome and detrimental effects; 2) pl. money that a person is ordered by a court to pay to another person in compensation for a loss or injury.
Hurt– harm, damage, less serious than wound and injury, harm to feelings.
Wound – a damaged place in the body, usually a hole or tear through the skin, especially one made intentionally by a weapon such as a gun or a knife.
4. To save – to make safe from danger, harm, destruction; to keep and add to an amount of money for later use; to prevent or avoid the waste.
To rescue – to save, to set free from harm, danger, loss.
To liberate – to set free (from prison, control, duty).
To free – to allow to go free, to move or loosen; to take away from anything inconvenient, uncomfortable, difficult, unwelcome.
To release – 1) to set free, let go; 2) to allow a new film or record to be shown or sold publicly.
5. Purpose –an intention or plan, a person’s reason for an action.
Aim – the desired result of one’s action.
Goal – a position or object one wishes to reach or obtain.
Objective – an aim, especially one that must be worked towards over a long period.
Intention – a plan which one has.
6. To use – to employ for a purpose, put into action or service; to finish, to consume; to take unfair advantage of someone.
To employ – to use the services of a person or group to perform work in return for pay, give a job; to use.
To apply – to bring or put into use or operation; to put or spread on the surface; to request something, especially officially and in writing.
To exploit – to use a person unfairly for one’s own profit or advantage; to use or develop fully so as to get profit.
7. To carry – to have or hold in one’s arms, on one’s back, etc. while moving.
To bring – to carry or accompany to a place; suggests movement of something towards the speaker or the place where the speaker is.
To fetch – to go for and bring back.
8. Wet – 1) covered or saturated with liquid, rainy; 2) not yet having dried or hardened (paint, ink).
Moist – slightly wet (food, parts of the body).
Humid – containing a lot of water vapour (weather, climate).
Damp – wet, often in an unpleasant way.
9. To emit – to send out (heat, light, sound, smoke).
To radiate – to send out in all directions (light, heat, happiness, confidence).
To discharge – to send, pour or let out (gas, liquid).
10. To require – 1) to need or make necessary; 2) to give an order and expect that it will be obeyed.
To demand – to ask authoritatively or brusquely; insist on having; need.
11. To happen – to come into existence, especially without being planned (event, situation).
To occur – to happen (unplanned event).
To take place – to happen by arrangement.
12. Diluted – made weaker and thinner by mixing with another liquid.
Dissolved– made liquid by putting into liquid.
Soluble – that can be dissolved in a liquid.
Instant – 1) happening or produced at once; 2) which can be very quickly prepared for use.
Solvent – a liquid able to turn a solid substance into liquid; able to dissolve other substances.
13. Fire – the condition of burning; flames, light and great heat.
Blaze – a big dangerous fire; a bright flame.
Conflagration – an extensive and destructive fire.
14. To escape – to get free, to find a way out; to get away from an enclosed space.
To avoid – to keep away or refrain from; prevent from doing or happening.
To evade – to escape by trickery.
To elude – to escape in a skillful or cunning way.
15. Empty – containing nothing.
Vacant – 1) not filled with anything; 2) showing lack of interest or active thought.
Blank– 1) without print, writing or other marks; 2) expressionless.
16. Amount – the total of something in number, size, value or extent (uncountable nouns).
Quantity – the fact of being measurable.
Number – quantity or amount (countable nouns).
17. To increase – to make or become larger in amount, number or degree.
To rise – to increase in number, size, intensity or quality.
To raise – to increase amount, level or strength.
To enlarge – to make or become bigger.
18. To decrease – to become less in size, amount, strength, quality.
To reduce – to make less in size, amount, price, degree.
To lessen – to make or become smaller in size, worth, importance, appearance.
19. Common – found or happening often and in many places, not rare; of no special quality or rank.
Usual – customary; habitually or typically occurring or done.
Ordinary – with no distinctive features, normal.
20. Ability – skills, power to do something.
Capacity – 1) ability or power; 2) the amount that something can hold, contain or produce.
21. Aware– having knowledge or understanding.
Conscious – 1) having all one’s senses working; 2) knowing, understanding; 3) deliberate, intentional.
22. Lasting - continuing for a long time.
Permanent – lasting or intended to last for a long time or for ever.
Durable – able to last, hard-wearing.
Дата добавления: 2014-12-29; Просмотров: 465; Нарушение авторских прав?;