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virtue/vә:tju:/ позитивна риса: сила, дія

by virtue ofзавдяки (syn. due it)

virtually/'vәrtjuәli/ фактично (syn. in fact)

Translate the sentences:

1. Freon is a refrigerant of great virtue.

2. The device has the virtue of being adjusted.

3. Water in a wave obtains kinetic energy by virtue of its motion.

4. Heat is the energy that a body possesses by virtue of the fact that its molecules are in motion.

5. The space station is virtually a scientific laboratory.


Read the text and answer the question:

Why is the humidity control so important?


"Psychrometric" literally means "pertaining to the measurement of cold", but in modern usage it refers to the state of the atmosphere with reference to moisture. The earth's atmospere — the air we breathe and the air in most refrigerated spaces — is mainly a mixture of dry air and water vapor. Of course in special cases other gases or vapors might also be present. But gener­ally speaking, in refrigeration applications the atmosphere is considered a mixture of dry air and water vapor.

Although the relative amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is very small (about 0.08 per cent by weight at 0°F saturated only 1.56 per cent at 70 F saturated), variations in this amount as well as changes in temperature are very significant and important in air conditioning. Relative to human comfort, there is much truth in the common expression, "It's not the heat, it's the humidity". Humidity means the amount of water vapor within a given space.

In many instances humidity controls is very important. Poor register is often noticed in colored printing, particularly in the Sunday comics; adjacent colors overlap or do not meet. A change in atmospheric humidity between the printing of the different colors probably was the cause, since paper shrinks and stretches as the humidity changes. In a meat cooler, too low a humidity can cause shrinkage, or drying out, which means a loss of product and less income to the owner. On the other hand, too high a humidity promotes a growth of mold and possible spoilage of the product. Therefore it should be evident that a study of psychromentry, including the properties of air-vapor mixtures and their measurement and control, is important in air conditioning.

Text for translation:


In a frozen product most of the water is transformed into ice and is separated from the other constituents. For this, it undergoes a special freezing process that allows it to retain its charac­ter and quality and keeps to a minimum possible physical, biochemical and microbiochemical deteriorations during freezing and preservation.

The term "deep-frozen product" is often used. This term and its equivalent ("quick-frozen product") mean that the set of rules which are listed below have been observed by the manufacturer and by the various professionals who help to distribute these products:

— the product shall be from the start in the best possible condition;

— depending on the nature of the product, specific treatments shall be done before freezing (cutting up, cleaning, etc.);

— freezing shall be done in an industrial freezer in such a way that the zone of maximum crystallization (-1° to -5°C) is rapidly crossed, and the temperature everywhere in the product is brought to -18°C or below;

— the product shall be protected by an airtight package suitable for the product and the conditions of use;

— the temperature of the product shall be kept at -18°C or below during storage, transport and marketing.

There is no scientific criterion for distinguishing a frozen product from a deep-frozen one. But for a frozen product it is possible not to follow all the conditions above. In particular, the product could, depending on its nature, be stored at -18°C, as long as the temperature on no account surpasses - 10°C; it could go without an airtight package; it could be intended for industrial sale, etc.


I. Translate the following word-combinations. Point out the basic words:

low-temperature frozen product; frozen-packed product; liquid freezer; deep freezer; commercial freezer; frozen package; airtight package.

II. Find in the text sentences with the verb "shall". Define its function.

III. Write a short summary of the text. Use the keywords:

a frozen product

a deep frozen product

the set of rules

at / above / below -18°C

airtight package


Lesson C. Speech Practice


conference, congress, assembly конференція, конгрес, асамблея

special позачергова

world всесвітня

annual щорічна

international міжнародна

regular чергова

forthcoming наступна

a chairman голова засідання

solemn opening урочисте відкриття

solemn closing / final sitting of урочисте закриття

to hold (to run) a conference проводити конференцію

time; date; term строк (час), термін

invited participant запрошений учасник

invitation запрошення

questionnaire; form анкета; бланк

to fill in a form in block letters заповнити анкету друкованими літерами

registration fee регістраційний внесок

enrollment fee вступний внесок

membership fee членський внесок

agenda /ә'd3endә/ порядок денний

draft of the agenda проект порядку денного

item (point) of the agenda питання / пункт порядку денного

to include in the agenda включити до порядку денного

to proceed to приступити до, переходити до

to read (to present, to deliver)

a paper (report) робити доповідь

to review a paper дати рецензію (відгук) на доповідь

annotation, abstract анотація

scientific report звіт про наукову роботу

to greet, to welcome вітати

speech, address промова, звернення

minutes /'minits/ протокол засідання

to place a statement in the minutes вносити заяву до протоколу

voting slip (paper),

ballot /'bælәt/ paper виборчий бюлетень

ballot-box урна

publication (transaction)

of proceeding видання доповідей, робіт

free безкоштовний

heading заголовок

manuscript рукопис

volume том

copy примірник; копія

proofs коректура

fee remittance переказ внеску

to refund / to reimburse a fee повернути внесок

at the expense of the conference за рахунок конференції

Read and translate the text:


Before any scientific Conference an Organizing Committee sends to all the concerned establishments the "First Announcement" or "First Circular". It states general information about the Conference and contains a Preliminary Application Form which gives information on participation. Those who want to attend the Conference should complete the Application Form and mail it without delay.

The Second Announcement contains information as to the terms of the Conference, commissions, participation and registration, pre-, mid- and post-Conference tours, scientific visits, living accommodations,enrollment fees, Ladies' program and everything for the participants to make maximum use of the occasion.

Any Conference is directed by a Chairman. It is duty of the promoters of the meeting to elect the Chairman. This is done either by a show of hands or by a paper vote.

The success of the Conference depends on the capabilities of the Chairman. His address should be much shorter than any of the speeches that follow.

When the Conference is open, the first matter for the Chairman is to read the agenda. Then the Chairman reads the correspondence requiring consideration, including letters of apology for absence. Anyone who wants to take the floor should ask the Chairman beforehand or by simply raising his hand after the Chairman opens the discussion.

It is very rare that a report is actually read even during scientific Conferences. As a rule papers presented at Plenary sessions are distributed to the delegates in a printed form.

During the discussions when speaking members stand and must preface their words with the

proper formula: "Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen... / Dear Colleagues... / Dear Friends... To address the Chairman is obligatory in English-speaking practice of public meetings.

When a lady takes a chair, she should be addressed as Madam Chairman.

The agenda is a list of the subjects which the Conference is called to consider. The agenda must determine the order in which matters are discussed by the members. The time for main reports, general discussions, concluding speeches, elections and final resolutions should be fixed whitin the agenda.

At each Conference a Secretary sits on the platform close to the Chairman and makes notes from which the minutes must be written up.

Minutes as a rule show only main ideas of the speakers and the decisions recorded at the meeting.

Any scientific Conference may decide to adopt some resolution or appeals to finish its work. Very often a Drafting Commitee is elected to present a draft resolution. A final resolution is adopted when all amendments are discussed.

The final duty of the Chairman is to call upon a member to make a vote of thanks.

After the speaker's words of gratitude to the Chair, the contributors, the sponsors, the audience, the services, and to local administration for organization of the Conference and for hospitality, the Chairman declares the Conference closed.

Notes:to take the floor — взяти слово, виступити

amendments — поправки

a vote of thanks — заключне слово з виразом вдячності

hospitality — гостинність

Answer the questions:

1. What does the First Announcement acquaint the participants of the Conference with?

2. What is an Application Form?

3. What is the Second Announcement and what does it contain?

4. Who directs the Conference?

5. What other duties has the Chairman?

6. What does the agenda of the Conference contain?

7. How should a speaker address the audience?

8. What does the Secretary of the Conference do?

9. What must the minutes of the Conference show?


10. What is a resolution and what does it include?

11. How does the Conference end?


I. Match the verbs and the nouns as their objects:

to mail, to address, to complete, to take, to elect, to offer, to maintain, to avoid, to keep (to), to submit, to make, to adopt

the chairman, a nomination, order, the audience, a letter, an application form, the floor, recom mendations, a resolution, disappointment, the point, a report

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