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A) Study the definitions of the words with similar meanings and think about their proper Russian equivalents





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VOCABULARY COMMENTARY I

UNIT I

 

1. economical / economic

economical –[adj]

using money, time, goods etc carefully without wasting any

My new car is quite economical.

economic [adj] (only before noun)

connected with trade, industry, and the management of money

Unfortunately economic growth is slowing down.

2. comfortable / convenient

comfortable[adj]

feeling physically relaxed and satisfied (without feeling any pain or being too cold, hot etc); feeling pleasant to sit or lie on

She made herself comfortable in a new armchair. The sofa was big and comfortable.

convenient[adj]

helpful for you because it saves you time and effort or does not spoil your plans or cause any problems; near and easy to reach

Travelling by underground is fast, convenient and cheap. If it’s convenient, call me tomorrow before noon.

convenience – [n, C]

a situation, appliance or device that is useful, helpful or suitable

The house has all the modern conveniences(central heating, hot water supply, electricity, telephone etc.). Mod cons = modern conveniences

 

3. ordinary / average / normal / standard /conventional

ordinary[adj]

ordinary things are not special or unusual; ordinary people are not famous or powerful, and are not especially rich or clever

Did the president meet any ordinary Mexicans?

 

average[adj] (only before noun)

an average person or thing is a typical example of a person or of a particular type of thing

Tommy was a child of average intelligence.

normal [adj]

smth. that is normal is just how you would expect it to be, because it is not special, different or surprising

He didn’t like anything to interrupt his normal daily routine.

standard –[adj] (usually before noun)

normal, used to say especially about products or methods that are the most usual type, without any special features; standard model / size / shape / pattern; standard procedure / practice; standard English / pronunciation / spelling



It’s a standard reply that the company sends out to applicants.

conventional[adj] (only before noun)

a conventional method, piece of equipment, weapon, etc. is of the normal type that has been used for a long time. The word is mainly used for comparing things.

You can cook the meat either in a microwave or in a conventional oven.

 

4. out of the ordinary / eccentric / extraordinary

out of the ordinary - [adj]

unusual, different, unexpected or exceptional

I didn’t notice anything out of the ordinary. The boy’s knowledge was out of the ordinary.

eccentric – [adj]

(of people and their behaviour) behaving or appearing in a way that is unusual and different from most people, slightly odd; strange or unusual actions, decisions that people make

He is well - known for his eccentrichabits. Our neighbour was an eccentricold lady.

extraordinary – [adj]

very much better, more beautiful, or more impressive than usual; very unusual or surprising because it would normally be very unlikely to happen or exist

His courage and determination were extraordinary. It’s extraordinaryweather for this time of year.

5. home / house / dwelling / accommodation / lodging(s)

home – [n, C/U]

the place where you live; [U] the country or city where you live; [U] the place where you grew up

East or West, home is best. I left home when I was 18.

house – [n, C]

a building made for people to live in, especially one that has more than one level and is intended to be used by one family

I’d like to buy a three-bedroomed house with a garden.

dwelling– [n, C]

(formal) a house, flat, or other shelter in which someone lives, dwelling houses are modern blocks of flats; Synonym: tenement

Some 3,500 newdwellings are planned.

accommodation – [n, U] (accommodations – AmE, formal)

a place for someone to stay, live, or work in; a house, flat or hotel room

The hotel provides accommodation for up to 100 people.

lodging – [n, U/C]

temporary accommodation that you pay to live in

He was given a free lodgingin a three-room flat.

lodgings– [n, plural]

a room or set of rooms in someone’s house rented for a living

It’s cheaper to live in lodgings than in a hotel.

a lodger [n, C] someone who pays rent to live in a house with its owner; Synonym: tenant

Jennie took in a lodger to help with the mortgage.

6. setting / surroundings / environment / neighbourhood

setting – [n, C, usually singular]

all the things that surround someone or something at a particular time, including the events that happen, their environment, the people they are with, or the emotions that are part of that place; the place or the time when the action of a book, film etc. happens

The hotel is located in a charming mountain setting. Canberra is thesetting for his latest novel.

surroundings – [n, plural]

all the objects, conditions etc. that are around and may affect someone, all the things that are present in a place and that form the experience of being there; Synonym: the environment

Our new surroundings are a lot more friendly than we expected. The hotel is in beautiful surroundings on the edge of the lake.

environment – [n, C]

the place in which people live and work, including all the physical conditions that affect them; the conditions and influences in which people carry on a particular activity

He grew up in a harsh urban environment. In this competitive environment a business needs to be flexible.

the environment – the natural conditions, including the land, water, air, in which people, animals and plants live

Industrial development is causing widespread damage to the environment.

neighbourhood – [n, C]

a particular area of a city or town; the people who live near each other

He lives in our neighbourhood. The whole neighbourhood came to the school concert.

7. let / rent

to let – [v]

to allow smb. to use a room, flat, house etc. in return for regular payments

Iletthe spare room (to a lodger).



to rent – [v]

to regularly pay money to live in a house or room that belongs to someone else

We rent our flat from an old retired couple.

rent – [n, C / U]

the amount of money that you pay regularly to use a house, flat or a piece of land

Jack is short of money – he owes three weeks’ rent. Her monthly rent is $400.

8. in the country / in the countryside / in the village / in the suburbs / on the outskirts

a country – [n, C]

an area of land that forms a politically independent unit; a nation; a state

There will be rain over all parts of the country.

the country – [n, singular]

any area outside large cities and towns, typically with villages, fields, woods, etc.; Synonym: the countryside

We spent a pleasant day in the country.

(the) countryside – [n, U]

the area outside towns and cities, with farms, fields, and trees; Synonym: the country

 

There is growing concern over the future of the countryside.

a village – [n, C]

a group of houses, shops, etc., usually with a church and situated in a country area

He lives quietly in the country in the villagenear Lahti.

a suburb – [n, C]

an area or town near a large city but away from its centre, where there are many houses, especially for middle-class people; a suburb of London, a Moscow suburb, in the suburbs

Once we have kids, we’ll probably move to the suburbs.

outskirts – [n, plural]

the parts of a town or city that are furthest from the centre; on the outskirts

They live on the outskirts of Paris.

b) Fill in the gaps choosing an appropriate word in the correct form:

1. economical / economic

1) Larger tubes of toothpaste are more __________.

2) The President’s __________ reforms have put a lot of people out of work.

3) We are faced with a deepening __________crisis.

4) She was brought up to be __________ with housekeeping money.

5) At last he decided to buy a (an) __________ little car.

6) In recent years a lot of East-Asian countries have demonstrated a great __________ growth.

 

2. comfortable / convenient

1) I find going to the supermarket once a month the most __________way to shop.

2) I was so __________ and warm in bed I didn’t want to get up.

3) Sit down and make yourself __________ while I put the kettle on.

4) Is three o’clock __________for you?

5) I never feel very __________ in his presence.

6) We must arrange a __________ time and place for the meeting.

 

3. ordinary / average / normal / standard /conventional

1) The __________ family spends $100 a week on food.

2) It’s just a (an) __________ house in a (an) __________street.

3) January 2nd is a public holiday in Scotland, but in England it is a (an) __________working day.

4) Foreign affairs do not usually interest a (an) __________ voter.

5) Can you get connected to the Internet through a (an) __________telephone line?

6) The __________ model costs $ 4000 less than the luxury model.

7) He wanted a (an) __________ marriage with a wife and kids.

8) Under __________ circumstances I would say ‘yes’.

9) All hand-baggage was X-rayed – this is now __________ practice at international airports.

10) The problems are associated with __________ methods of energy production.

 

4. out of the ordinary / eccentric / extraordinary

1) He is a (an) __________ character who likes wearing a beret and dark glasses.

2) It seems quite __________that the Prime Minister can claim these figures as a triumph.

3) He did his best to be __________.

4) The picture does not capture her __________ beauty.

5)I didn’t notice anything __________.

6) Mr. Thomas is a middle-aged businessman with __________ views.

 

5. home / house / dwelling / accommodation / lodgings

1) David had changed his __________, leaving no address behind.

2) He hiked the Grand Canyon, exploring Indian cliff __________.

3) Every child is in need of a loving __________.

4) She used to live in a small __________ in Warwickshire.

5) The government will provide temporary __________ for up to three thousand people.

6) Her __________ was in perfect order when she moved in.

7) The nurse visits patients in their __________.

8) It was a street of tall gloomy __________.

9) My friend told me I might find some __________ here.

10) Many of the single men found __________ in the surrounding villages.

 

6. setting / surroundings / environment / neighbourhood

1) Parents are responsible for providing the right __________ for their children to grow and learn in.

2) It took me a few weeks to get used to my new __________.

3) Everyone in the __________ seemed to have heard the news.

4) Jane felt nervous in the unfamiliar __________ of her new school.

5) The castle stands in a spectacular __________surrounded by hills.

6) Freddy and his family lived in a big house in a wealthy __________.

7) We need to create a safe working __________ for all employees.

8) The __________ of the play is Venice in the 1930s.

 

7. to let / to rent (a rent)

1) I don’t earn enough to pay __________, let alone to run a car.

2) Interhome Company has over 20,000 houses __________across Europe.

3) Nick has been __________ for five years now, and he can’t afford to buy.

4) She is thinking of __________ her house to an American businessman.

5) She __________ a house with three other girls.

 

8. in the country / in the countryside / in the village / in the suburbs / on the outskirts

1) The region boasts one of the most beautiful __________ in the state.

2) When she was young she used to live in a small __________ near the lake.

3) There are plans to build a giant shopping centre __________of Glasgow.

4) Anna was born in 1923 in Ardwick, a __________ of Manchester.

5) The surrounding __________ was so spectacular that it seemed to be the most scenic place __________.

6) Their house is not centrally located, they live __________of the city.

7) I’ve always wanted to live __________.

8) My granny’s __________ was situated in the mountains.

9) Life __________ is not so busy as that in the city.

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