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Basic English [ for Computing 3 страница





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If this is not appropriate, elicit questions about

famous people, for example, sportsmen and women,

singers, and actors:

Who is the captain of Real Madrid?

Who is married to Tom Cruise?

For the where does and when does questions, you could elicit a question chain around the class, with students asking questions about where and when members of each other's families work and/or study.

Where does your father work? He works in a bank. When does he work? Every day of the week from nine to five.

When you have elicited at least one of these questions from every student in the class, go on to look at the other types of examples given in the Student's Book.

Writing

Task 9

If you set this writing activity for homework, you could begin the next lesson by getting students to talk about their timetables. One way of doing this would be to get a question-and-answer chain going round the class, where students have to answer one question about their timetable, and then ask another student a (different) question about his or hers.

What do you have on Monday at 9.30? On Monday at 9.30.1 have statistics. (To next student) What do you have on Eriday at 12.30?

On Friday at 12.301 go home. etc.

If everyone in the class has a very similar timetable, you could make the activity more difficult by setting a time limit, say three seconds, for the students to come up with Ihe right answer.


 

 


Task 8

Computing words and abbreviations


 

 


Get the students to work individually or in pairs to transform the sentences into questions. Remind them to pay attention to the use of do and does. according to whether the sentence is plural or singular. Go round the class and prompt students who are experiencing difficulties with the right question words.

Key

1 What time do they start? Where does she work? Who teaches numeracy? How long do they (the lessons) last? When does she go on visits?

6 Where does she study?

7 How long does it (the course) last?



9 10

8 When does she write reports? What do they (does the students' union) organize? When (how often) does she work?

Task 10

This matching task is also a good revision exercise, since it features items from throughout the first four units. Encourage students to try and match the items from memory. They can refer to the Glossary or look back at Units 1 to 4 for the items they need help with. This might be a good moment to introduce word webs as a way of storing and learning sets of word collocations, since many of the words featured here are commonly used in more than one combination, e.g disk drive, floppy disk, hard disk. etc.

Key

2d power supply 4e expansion card 6h floppy disk 8g cache memory

1f memory chip 3b function key 5a barcode 7c disk drive

Standard input device
Device Comments
keyboard Main input device controlling the
  computer and inputting text and
  numerical data.
Cursor control input devices
Device Comments
mouse Common input device for use with a
  graphical user interface. The mouse
  has a ball underneath that is rolled
  onamousemat.

 

trackerball It is like a mouse turned upside

down. The trackerball remains in one position while the user rotates a small ball on top. Often used instead of a mouse on portable computers.

joystick A vertical lever allows the user to

control the cursor precisely and at high speed. Particularly good for playing fast action games.

touchscreen The user interacts with the

Input devices A variety of input devices can be connected to a computer to allow the user to input different kinds of data and to control the computer in different ways. Some common input devices and their functions are shown in the tables below:

computer by lightly pressing their finger on a touch-sensitive area of the monitor screen.

Optical input devices

Device Comments

lightpen It detects differences in reflected light. It can be used for drawing directly on the monitor screen or for reading printed optical characters or barcodes.

graphics tablet Used with a lightpen for drawing.

The user draws on the tablet with a lightpen as if they were drawing on a sheet of paper.

barcode reader A special kind of lightpen for reading barcodes. Barcodes are used to identify items for stock control and pricing.

scanner Used to input text and graphics

from a printed page.

digital camera Used to take pictures of an object.

The picture is stored electronically and can be edited using a computer.

Voice input device

Device Comments

microphone Used to input sound.

By the end of this unit, students should be better at making inferences from a text.

Objectives

They should be able to describe the function of a device.

They should know and be able to use these words: trackerball, joystick, touchscreen, lightpen, lever, graphics tablet, scanner, digital camera, microphone.

Tuning-in

Task 1

Get the students to work in pairs or small groups. They should pool their technical knowledge to try and identify what the eight input devices are, and to match them with the correct English term. When you correct the exercise as a class, make sure that everyone understands exactly what each device is and has an idea of its purpose.

Task 3

Before you play the recording get the students to identify the devices shown in the diagram - microphone, speech recognition board, monitor, etc., and ask someone to explain binary code.

Task 4

Play the recording through without stopping the first time, and tell the students not to write anything but just to listen and identify. The second time, pause after each piece of information to give the students time to make any necessary corrections.

Listening

Key

1b 2e 3d 4a 5c

Reading


 

 


Task 5


 

 


trackerball digital camera joystick scanner

Task 2

Make sure the students understand that you do not want them to write sentences, just make lists. You could treat this activity as a game by getting the students to work in groups and setting a time limit for them to list as many different uses for each device as they can. The group with the greatest number of correct uses wins.



Key

device uses

joystick computer games

barcode reader reads barcode labels graphics tablet drawing

digital camera like a film camera but can input

photographs directly to a computer trackerball controls the cursor like a mouse scanner inputs drawings, photographs, and

texts

touchscreen allows cursor to be controlled by

Key a touchscreen c barcode reader e microphone g graphics tablet
b d f h

touching the screen, microphone inputs sound

Get students to give examples of the sort of clues they should look for to help them decide which devices the texts refer to. For example: trackerball - look for ball and rolls lightpen - look for draw and light

They should start off working individually, but when they have completed their tables, get them to compare their answers in pairs. Go over the answers as a class, and then get the students to fill in the gaps in the texts, and read the completed versions aloud.

Key

1 joystick 2 trackerball 3 lightpen 4 scanner

Language work

There are many different ways to describe function. The four examples given here use a variety of grammatical structures.

The Passive voice is employed here in order to emphasize the importance of the object of the sentence, (and its use), over that of the subject (the user). This is because we are interested in the

Joysticks are used in computer games

Barcodes are used in supermarkets for indicating prices

When you are going through this structure with your students, put plenty of examples on the board, and try to elicit more from the class. Do not forget to draw their attention to the ing ending on the verb after the preposition/or.

Can is used in two different structures. The first is a conventional structure that the students should have no problems with: You can use an X to ...

The second structure may appear strange to students at first, but it is easily transferable: Using an X, you can ...

A microphone is used for inputting sound A mouse is used for controlling the cursor

Give the students plenty of examples, and elicit examples from them.

A joystick is used for moving the cursor rapidly. Lightpens are used for drawing pictures on a computer screen.

You can use a scannerto copy documents. Using a digitial camera, you can produce photos without film.

barcode reader mouse microphone

You can use a mouse to select from a menu. A keyboard is used to input text. A microphone is used to input sound.

Problem-solving

Task 8

If students seem confident, put the list of uses up on the board, and get them to choose the best device for each situation from memory, with their books closed. They should work in pairs or small groups. Encourage them to try and carry out all discussion in English. Go round the class and help. If any groups get stuck, let them refer to the book for ideas. You could ask them to write their solutions down as part of the exercise, or to write them up afterwards for homework.

Key

function of the devices, what they are used for; not Key the identity of the people who use them. The passive is formed with the verb to be in its appropriate form and the past participle of the main verb (in this case, use - used). For example: Singular Plural

1 joystick 3 scanner 5 digital camera 7 keyboard


 

 


Task 6


 

 


The students should now be familiar with the uses of all the input devices and will only need a few minutes for this exercise.

Key

1f 2a 3b 4g 5e 6d 7c

Task 7

Writing

Task 9

If you set this task for homework, study the diagrams with the students in class first. Go through the processes the diagrams represent and teach new vocabulary.


 

 


Key
download change website expensive download better
1 3 5 7 9 11

Students work individually or in pairs to make sentences to describe the use of each device. They should write the sentences down. When they have finished, go through the exercise with the whole class and elicit as many variations as possible for each sentence.

2 PC 4 print 6 display 8 processing 10 processing 12 scan


Output devices


 

 


It is common for people to spend long periods of time in front of a computer. This can be detrimental to their health unless they follow a few simple guidelines. It is important that they remain relaxed and comfortable and that they avoid eyestrain. To achieve this, they must have appropriate furniture, lighting, and computer equipment - and must make sure that it is positioned correctly. The term workstation is sometimes used to describe a very powerful desktop computer but in this unit it refers to the furniture and environment used for working with a computer.

A printer is a very common output device. It is used to print the computer output on paper. Colour printers are available but most printing is done using a mono printer that prints only in black. There are three main kinds of printers: dot-matrix, Inkjet, and laser. Each type of printer has its own advantages and disadvantages.

A monitor is the most common type of output device. It displays the output from the computer on a screen. Because the user sees the computer in action using the monitor screen, the quality of the monitor can make a tremendous difference to the way the user interacts with the computer and feels about the computer. The display image on a monitor screen can be thought of as being made up of a series of dots. The quality of the image depends on a number of factors including:

Factors Affected by
the number of dots the resolution
the space between dots the aperture grill pitch
  (or dot pitch)
how often the dots are the refresh rate
refreshed by the beam  
of light  
the size of the dots the size of the screen and
  the resolution

 

Although technical factors are discussed in this unit, subjective preferences are important when choosing a monitor. The only way to choose a good monitor is by trying to use it.

Objectives

By the end of this unit, students should be better at: reading monitor advertisements listening and note-taking.

They should be able to use structures for giving advice in English.

They should know and be able to use these words: monitor, printer, dot-matrix, laser, inkjet, resolution, grill pitch.

Tuning-in

Task 1

Draw a rough sketch of a workstation on the board, and get the students to brainstorm vocabulary to describe the different parts of it. Encourage them to include 'easy' general English words like chair and window.

When you come to the matching exercise, remind students not to worry about vocabulary they are unsure of - they should be able to complete the activity successfully without understanding all the words.

Key

a5 b7 c2 d6 e3 U g1'

Listening

Task 2

Ask someone from the class to tell you what the three different types of printer are called. Explain

that you are going to hear a recording about the differences between them. When the students are in their groups of three and it is established who is A, B, and C, study the table together as a class, and make sure students understand the headings. Before you play the recording, make sure students are clear that they are only listening for information about one type of printer. (Note that the text about the laser is the most difficult.)

Task 3

Before the students exchange information, elicit the question they should ask for each heading. Establish that the question for colour (not given) could be Can it print in colourP Whilst they are doing the exercise, go round the class monitoring for common mistakes or problems.

Reading

Task 4

Before you ask students to read the text, revise numbers, including the pronunciation of decimals, and how to talk about measurements. Explain that an inch is about 2.5 centimetres.

Get them to do the true/false comprehension exercise as individuals, and compare their answers in pairs afterwards. The following procedure is useful:

1 Decide what are the key items in the eight statements, e.g. in number one monitors, twenty- two inches, common.

2 Scan the text to find any reference to these items, e.g. monitors occurs in the text under the heading price, where we also find the adjective common, and a selection of measurements.

3 Read the part of the text where the reference is in more detail and decide whether it agrees with the statement, e.g. twenty-two inches is not included in the list of measurements - we can conclude correctly that number one is, therefore, false.

Key

IF 2 F 3T 4T 5 F 6T 7 F 8T

Task 5

Give the students a minute to look at the table in the Student's Book. Elicit the questions that they would need to ask to obtain the information under each heading, e.g. What's the screen size? or How big is the screen? How much does it cost? etc. Then get them to do the pair-work exercise.

Language work

Make sure students are clear about what advice is. Introduce the first two structures, and explain the difference between them, i.e. I think you should is softer and less direct than Why don't you? Explain that adding a reason makes advice more effective, and then give lots of examples. Why don't you get a new computer? Your old one is too slow.

I think you should buy a new printer. This one is too expensive to run.

Why don't you write down new vocabulary. Then you can revise it.

Invent a situation or a problem, e.g. Mario's very tired, and ask the class what advice they could give in this situation. For example: I think you should go to bed early. Why don't you take some exercise? I think you should go out less.

Supply prompts if the students are not capable of generating the language themselves. Finally, ask everyone to write down a piece of advice for their partner.

Once students have got used to using the structures for giving positive advice, you can introduce and practise the negative structures fairly quickly. If the students are not already familiar with it, teach and practise the use of too.

Task 6

Tell students to use the language from Task 1 to help them suggest improvements for user of the workstation in the picture. They should transform each of the imperative statements, e.g. Use afoot rest into an offer of advice with, if possible, a reason, e.g. You should use afoot rest. Your chair is too high.

Key 1 dot-matrix 2 mono-laser 3 colour laser 4 mono-inkjet 5 colour-inkjet

Get the students to do this in pairs, and go round the class helping where required. When they've finished, take some sample exchanges from around the group and invite comments from the other students.

Problem-solving

Task 7

Elicit the names of the three different types of printer studied in Task 2. See how much the students can remember about them without looking at their books. Then get the students to work in pairs and, using the flowchart to help them, decide on the best type of printer for each of the people described. Give them the structure This person should, buy an X because... You could ask them to write their solutions down as part of the exercise, or to write them up afterwards for homework.

Writing

Task 8

Before you begin this activity, revise comparative structures, or tell students to look back at the Language work section in Unit 2. The factual information about the printers is in the table they filled in for Task 2, but students should be quite familiar with it by now.

This text is based closely on the listening text (Task 3). When students have finished, play the recording again, and get students to correct their written work by listening to the recorded text.

Key

1 cheapest 2 but 3 noisy

4 cheap 5 more 6 better

7 slow 8 expensive 9 best

10 faster 11 types 12 less

13 cost 14 much

The electronic memory inside a computer is of limited capacity and can only hold data when the computer is switched on. A storage device is used to store data that is not being processed and to save data when the computer is switched off. There are a variety of storage devices and storage media available. These include magnetic devices (e.g. floppy disk drives, hard disk drives, tape drives), optical devices (e.g. CD-ROM drives), and magneto-optical drives.

Disks have to be treated with care if you do not want to damage them or the data stored on them. Damage can be caused by physical strain, dust, smoke particles, fingermarks, sunlight, heat, and magnetism, depending on the type of media used. When in use, a disk rotates at high speed and a read/write head is brought very close to its surface. If the disk is removed when the drive is in use, the read/write head and the disk surface may be damaged. If extra labels are attached to the disk, it can very easily get stuck in the drive. In this case, it should not be removed forcibly in case the drive mechanism or the surface of the disk is damaged. A hard disk is particularly easily damaged because it contains more than one disk and read/write head.The read/write heads are extremely close to the surfaces of the disks and the disks spin at a very high speed. Even a small smoke or dust particle can destroy the drive. It is therefore enclosed in a vacuum sealed case. If a hard disk suddenly fails completely, the disk is said to have crashed.

When comparing storage devices, the following

factors have to be taken into account.

What is the storage cost per megabyte?

How fast are they at reading and writing data?

What is their maximum storage capacity?

Are they used by the people you need to exchange

data with?

Do they conform to a standard? Are they fixed or removable? Are they read only or read and write? Do they use random or serial access?

It is important to keep backup copies of stored data. Magnetic tape is often used because it is very cheap and can hold extremely large amounts of data. It is common to use a backup scheme where a number of tapes are used in rotation.

Objectives

By the end of this unit, students should be better at:

listening for specific information

reading a text for main points and reporting these

orally.

Storage devices

They should be able to use linking words.

They should know and be able to use these words: floppy/hard disk drive, drive motor, read/write heads, sealed case, magneto-optical disk, magnetic tape.

Tuning-in

Task 1

Try and elicit some rules for CD-ROM and floppy disk care from the students before they start the

exercise.

Key

2S 3X 4X 5/ 6/ IX 8/ 9/ Note 7: Extra labels can come off and damage the disk drive.

Listening

Task 2

This brief vocabulary exercise will enable the students to visualize more effectively the description they are going to hear. Get the students to work individually or in pairs to match the vocabulary items with the labelled sections of the diagram. Check for comprehension of gap and sealed. Don't correct the task until you have completed Task 3.

Pause the tape as required to give the students time to write.

Key

1d 2e 3c 4b 5f 6a

Task 4

Students might have the technical knowledge to answer these questions, but have difficulty generating the vocabulary (although some of it has already been given to them). Get them to work individually or in pairs to prepare written answers - either in note form or full sentences. Encourage them to use dictionaries to look up words they don't know. For a weaker group, you could put some key words on the board, such as, for example dust, fingerprints, sealed. Don't correct the task until you have completed Task 5.

Task 5

As usual, let the students listen to the recording more than once. Give them some time for corrections they might want to make to their original answers. Then ask for volunteers to read out their answers.

Key

1 dust, smoke, fingerprint, hair

2 tiny

Task 3

3 it's in a sealed case

If the group is fairly able and motivated, get them to cover the text and see how much of the table they can complete from their own general knowledge before they do the reading activity. When students come to work in threes, you could photocopy the page and cut it into three sections. This would ensure that each students focuses entirely on his or her given texts and does not try to read the others. Give them as much time as they need to read their texts and to complete the related sections of their tables.

Task 8

If you axe working with an able group, give them a few minutes to learn the information in their texts. Check that there are no comprehension problems. Then tell students to put the texts aside, and that they are not allowed to look at them during the information exchange. Weaker groups will need to check information in their texts in order to answer questions about it, but emphasize that this is a speaking, and not a reading activity. Go through the question forms. Then start the information gap activity: they have to complete the missing information in their tables by asking other students questions.

Task 7

Explain that they should also ask regarding any information they are not sure of, for example, any parts of the table they filled in just using their own general knowledge. When they have finished, put the table up on the board, and elicit the correct answers.


Reading

Task 6

Ask students to close their books and give them a few minutes to make a list of different kinds of storage devices mentioned in the course so far. Then tell them to add to the list any other kinds of storage devices that they know about. Ask for feedback and put the words on the board.

Key

Mentioned in this unit: CD-ROM, floppy disk, hard disk

Key Medium Floppy disk Fixed hard disk Removable hard disk

Others: double density floppy, DVD, high density floppy, magneto-optical disk, magnetic tape, removable magnetic disks

Advantages

standard, portable cheap

fast, large capacity

CD-ROM disk common, standard, removable, large capacity, cheap Magneto- removable, large optical disk capacity, can be written on, long-lasting Magnetic cheap, stores large tape amounts of data

fast, large capacity can transfer'data

Disadvantages

slow, limited capacity

fixed, cannot use to transfer data expensive, not standard, not common read-only, cannot change information, slow expensive, not standard

slow, no random access


Language work

Problem-solving


 

 


Linking words are essential in order to express anything more than the very simplest ideas. The words and phrases presented in this section are a collection of the most b asic ones - but, because, so, however, therefore, for this reason. Introduce the items one by one, and provide plenty of examples of each. To provide practice in using linking devices, take the opportunity to revise examples from earlier units. Put some sentences on the board in two columns.

A

Large companies use mainframes.

Notebooks are easy to They are popular with carry. salespeople.

Palmtops are very light. They are difficult to type with.

B They are very powerful.

Get the students to link items from column A with items from column B, by adding either but, however, so, or because. Tell them to look for words in column A which axe related to words in column B, and to think of what that relationship is. Between the fact that mainframes are very powerful and the fact that companies use them, for example, the relationship is one of result, the link word is because. Between the positive fact that palmtops are light and the negative fact that they axe diffcult to type with, the relationship is contrast, the link word is but, and so on. This should make it easier for them to choose the appropriate word to link these ideas.

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