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Basic English [ for Computing 5 страница
By the end of this unit, students should be better at: listening and reading for detailed information explaining rules orally.
They should be able to describe procedures using the present passive.
They should know and be able to use these words: voicemail, video conferencing, telephone lines, fibre optic cable, microwave station, earth satellite, relay, send, transmit.
Before students look at the task, very briefly elicit some ideas from the class about the ways in which the San Francisco and Georgia departments could communicate and share information. Then ask them to work individually or in pairs to match the list of items a-e with the diagram.
1a,h 2b,g 3c,f 4d 5e
Set a time limit and ask the students to work in pairs. They should try and write down as many organizations which use long-distance computer communications to exchange information as they can.
Examples: airlines, news agencies, weather forecasting, shipping lines.
Elicit from the class what voicemail is. Find out if anyone knows what analogue and digital signals are before you let students look them up in the Glossary. You may also need to pre-teach caller and recipient. Note that on the diagram, analogue signals are shown by sine waves, and digital signals by square waves. When they have completed the matching task, ask the students to write a simple description of how a voicemail system works using only the diagram.
1b 2d 3a 4c
This provides practice in listening for detailed information. Start by quickly revising telling the time, and give students some practice in reading times outloud, e.g. 8.15-eight-fifteen or a quarter past eight, 8.30-eight-thirty or half-past eight, 8.45 - eight-forty-five or a quarter to nine.
Make sure they have enough time to read the questions and that they understand the situation, e.g who is London and who is in Brussels, etc. before you play the recording.
Note that the message contains an email address. This topic is addressed in more detail in Unit 13, Task 9, but you might want to explain to your students, that the letters 'b,e' at the end of the address indicate Belgium.
1 One (for sales-)
2 10.15 a.m.
3 there are no seats on the 8.30 flight so he won't be on time
4 by plane
5 9.45 a.m.
6 10.30 a.m.
7 11.15 a.m. is possible if the traffic isn't bad but he makes the appointment for 11.30 a.m. to be safe
8 because after 8.30 a.m. he will be on his way to the airport (students will have to inferthis from the information they are given)
The diagram shows a page from Lenny's organizer on his PC - appointments are made by clicking on the 'pages' with the mouse and adding the details and times. Students will probably be able to identify the problem of the meeting time immediately. Let them listen to the recording again to work out the details.
The 'problem' is that Lenny can't meet with John Bailes at 11.30 because he has another appointment at that time. In his message, John asks Lenny to email him by 8.30 if there is any problem. However, Lenny does not check his voicemail until 9.00.This is too late to contact John, who will already be on his way to the airport.
Check how much the students know about video conferencing. Your college or university may have this facility. Explain that the diagram shows the control pad for a video conferencing system. Ask the class to predict what sort of controls such a system would need, and write their predictions on the board. Pre-teach Near End (the caller), Far End (the recipient), mute (silent, the microphone is switched off), and banner (screen message). Students can then read the text for the first time to check which of the controls they predicted are mentioned. On the second reading, they can scan the text to find the answers to questions 2 and 2.
1 a puts Near End, Far End, or both on mute
b controls the zoom in and out of the Far End camera
c selects numbers from the speed dial list d ends the call
2 aA bF cG dJ
Refer the students to the diagram of the police network in Task 1. Elicit the first few steps in sending a request for a suspect's record from San Francisco to Savannah. Write these on the board in as simple terms as possible.
1 A police officer requests a record.
2 His or her computer sends the message to a microwave station.
3 The station transmits the request to the nearest satellite.
Ask the class to identify the action (the verb) in each step. Underline this. Explain that often when we are describing a process the action is more important than the person or thing doing the action. Rub out the agent in each step, and convert actions 2 and 2 into the Present passive.
1 A record is requested.
2 The message is sent to a microwave station.
Ask a student to change action 3 in the same way.
Elicit the formation of the structure: the verb to he in the present tense (is, are), plus the past participle of the main verb. Point out that the past participle is normally formed by adding the suffix ed to the infinitive, but that there are many irregular verbs which do not take this form, e.g. send/sent, and they should make an effort to learn common irregular past forms.
This is probably best done as an individual written task.
(send, relay, and transmit are almost interchangeable in many contexts in this exercise) 1 are requested 2 is sent
3 is relayed 4 is transmitted 5 is transmitted 6 is relayed
7 is sent
Using the information about San Francisco/Savannah communications at the beginning of this unit, the students should now be able to work together and discuss how records are sent. Do the activity orally first, eliciting the steps from the class. Then ask students to rate their own descriptions of the process.
Set a short time limit for the students to write down, in pairs, as many links as they can think of.
Key (other answers are possible)
WoridWideWeb -to display texts, diagrams, and tasks
email -for student and teachers to communicate with each other
video conferencing -for live lectures, tutorials, and discussions
FTP (file transfer protocol) - for transferring or downloading files
Ask some pairs to talk through their descriptions and invite comment from the class.
This task focuses on some of the problems of optical character recognition, for example when computers are used to process handwritten cheques. Students can revise ways of giving advice (See Unit 7). For example: You should make the letters big. They're too smaE. You should use simple shapes. You shouldn't link characters.
When different networks are connected together, the combined network is called an internetwork or internet. The connection of networks throughout the world forms what is known as the Internet. Networks all over the world are connected to the Internet using electronic devices known as routers. The routers decide which route on the Internet a particular signal should take to get to its destination. Users often pay a monthly fee to a type of company known as an Internet service provider (ISP), to provide them with an Internet connection. A variety of services such as email and file transfer are made available to users on the Internet. These services are controlled using a system of server computers at various locations throughout the world.
Electronic mail, which has come to be known as email, is one of the most popular services on the Internet. Email allows users to send electronic messages to storage areas known as mailboxes on server computers where they can be read by other users. Each user has their own email address which determines where their email messages are stored. Every email address has two main parts separated by an ampersand symbol, i.e. username@domain name. The domain name maybe subdivided using dots. A typical email address might have the following components:
Username @ server . type of . country or identifier name organization
Standard codes are used for the types of organization, although they may vary slightly from country to country. Not all email addresses use all the possible parts of the domain name. An email message has two main parts known as the header and the body of the message. The body contains the message itself, whilst the header reveals the identity of the recipient and of the sender, the date it was sent, and the subject title of the message. Email consists of plain text but other types of computer files, such as formatted text, spreadsheets, sound files, or video files can be attached to email messages. These email attachments can then be opened and read using an appropriate program on the recipient's computer.
Groups of users that share a special interest can subscribe to free newsgroups on the Internet. Users subscribe by registering their email address. Subscribers can send plain text messages to a common area on a server computer where all the newsgroup members can read them. In this way, conversations about the special interest can taie place between all the members of the group. The name of the newsgroup is made up of different parts separated by dots and indicates the specialist area the subscribers are interested in. For example, newsgroup names that begin with alt indicate that they deal with alternative types of subjects, e.g. alt.tasteless-jokes. Newsgroup names beginning with rec deal with recreational subjects, e.g. rec.chess. When you are replying to a message, itis common to include the original message with each line marked with a chevron (>), and if you are replying to a reply, each line of the original text is marked with double chevrons (»). In this way the correspondents can keep track of the conversation.
By the end of this unit, students should be better at: listening and reading for detail making inferences.
They should understand the difference between the Past simple and Past continuous.
They should understand email addresses.
They should know and be able to use these words and abbreviations: router, server, hub, email, newsgroup, Internet service provider (ISP), attachment, UFO (unidentifiedflying object).
A warm-up discussion is unnecessary here, since Task 2 is a discussion task. Give the students a short length of time to do the matching, either individually or in pairs.
1 router 2 server
3 Internet Service Provider (ISP) 4 mainframe 5 network
Make sure you give students enough time to read through the questions and answer any queries about vocabulary before playing the recording. The language in the recording is colloquial and informal, that of a student talking to other students. Note kicking a ball about = playing football, get a team going = start a football team, and nothing fancy = informal. In addition to the questions set, ask your students what sort of course John is taking. They might be able to deduce that he is on an electronics course at a technical college.
In addition to the uses mentioned in this unit, email and newsgroups (Usenet), students are likely to mention the World Wide Web which is covered in Unit 14. They may also mention uses not covered in these units, such as taking part in computer simulations (MUDS and MOOS), transferring files (FTP), and searching for files (gopher).
Note: Usenet is the main Internet newsgroup service. FTP is for transferring files. Gopher is a search engine for finding files.
'Design and Make'
he has no sense of humour
he's having a party Sandra
Reading 2 on Fridays, classes finish
at 2.30 instead of 4.15 4 designing a security
alarm for his bike 6 football
8 at his flat
Point out some of the conventions of an email. They are less formal than many letters and resemble memos more than letters. Often there is no greeting (Dear...), although this example has one. Emails may include all sorts of attachments - audio, video, graphics. Point out that in this example the paperclip shows that there is an attachment.
Make sure that students are familiar with the oral expression of email addresses: gpark, at ed, dot, ac, dot, uk, and so on.
people - G. Park, L. Price, and A. Perez
a recording (sent as an attachment)
Elicit from the students or explain what Internet newsgroups are. Those given here are authentic groups which you and your students can sample if you have access to the Internet. Note that alt = alternative, rec = recreational.
Do the first one as an example. Students can do the others individually and compare in pairs or groups. When you have finished, ask students to suggest who would be interested in newsgroups d, g, i, and;.
1f 2a 3h 4c 5b 6e
Pre-teach UFO (unidentifiedflying object), alien, and coastguard. In most newsgroup exchanges, respondents quote the section of the message they wish to comment on, marking the quote with chevron (>) signs. Space has not permitted this here, but in all other respects these messages are typical of this newsgroup. Get the students to do this exercise individually, and then compare answers in pairs.
2 Ron Sony
3 6th March 1998 at 05.39
4 Fargo (North Dakota)
5 a UFO
6 Ben andThelma
7 an experimental military plane
8 the object was notthe usual shape of alien ships
9 three winged craft
10 looking for a missing fishing boat
Draw a horizontal line on the board to represent the time taken to fly from Dallas to Fargo. Write Dallas at one end and Fargo at the other. You can invent a takeoff time (e.g. 09.00) and landing time (11.30) and add these.
Using this simple diagram, you can show how the past continuous is used to provide a context for another action in the past. Point to one end and say, He took off at nine o'clock. Point to the other and say, He landed at eleven-thirty. Then point to the whole line, saying, From nine to eleven-thirty, he was flying from Dallas to Fargo. Mark a cross on the line to represent the UFO sighting: He saw a UFO.
Then put it all together, When he was flying from Dallas to Fargo, he saw a UFO. Once the students have got the general idea, get them to give you examples, based on real-life scenarios, e.g. When I was coming to class this morning ...
(Note that the choice of structure depends on the
information focus you choose.)
1 When/As/While he was flying from London to Edinburgh, he saw a UFO.
or He was flying from London to Edinburgh when he saw a UFO.
2 Her computer crashed when/as/while she was searching the Internet.
or When her computer crashed, she was searching the Internet.
3 When/As/While they were studying, a fire started in the Computer Lab.
4 When/As/While she was printing out her email, the printer developed a fault.
or When the printer developed a fault, she was printing out her email.
5 When/AsAWhile they were working on the computer, someone switched on the power.
or They were working on the computer, when someone switched on the power.
Read through the explanation of email@example.com with the students before they attempt the matching task. Point out that email addresses in the United States do not have a country name.
When you are going through the answers, get students to read the email addresses out loud.
1c 2a 3e 4b 5f 6h
7g (note absence of country name) 8d
This is best done as an individual written task. Remind students that see has the irregular past form saw.
1 was going 3 noticed 5 described 7 was heading
9 was searching 10 crashed
Teach as and while. Then ask the students to do this as an individual written task.
Ask your students to complete the from, date, to, and subject elements of their email. They can use real or imagined email addresses, provided they follow the conventions described in Task 9. If they have access to email, encourage them to send messages to each other in English.
Ask them first to write six sentences in answer to the questions in the task. Remind the students about linking ideas, so that they can transform the six sentences they write into two or three more complex sentences in their emails.
The connection of networks throughout the world forms the Internet which provides a range of different services, such as email, newsgroups, and file transfer. One of the newest and most popular services on the Internet is the World Wide Web which is commonly referred to as the Web, or simply as WWW.
A web browser program provides a graphical user interface for the Internet allowing users to view linked documents called webpages. When a user clicks on a webpage link, or hyperlink, the browser fetches and displays the linked webpage. Linked webpages may be stored on different servers in different parts of the world. A set of hyperlinked webpages is known as a website. Websites are available for an enormous range of topics, including news, sports, entertainment, education, and sale of goods.
Because there are so many websites on the Web, it is often difficult to find the information you are looking for. Special websites have been set up that use programs called search engines to search the Web for the information you need. Normally, you fill in a form on a search webpage to indicate what you are looking for and then click a search button to start the search engine. After searching the Web, it displays a webpage with hyperlinks to the websites that contain the information you are looking for. One of the most popular search engine websites is called Yahoo. When you find a webpage that you want to return to, you can store a hyperlink to the webpage in a bookmark or favorites area of the browser. (Note US spelling of favorites.)When you want to return to the webpage, you only need to click on the appropriate bookmark.
Each webpage has a unique web address sometimes known as a uniform resource locator (UKL). Web addresses often start with http://www, and each part of the web address is separated by a dot (.) or a slash (/). Http stands for hypertext transfer protocol, which is the standard way of communicating on the World Wide Web. A typical browser program has the following components:
By the end of this unit, students should be better at: understanding search skills for locating information in English on the World Wide Web linking text and diagram using inferences locating information on a web page.
They should be able to use the -ing form accurately.
They should know and be able to use these words: browser, download, search engine, title bar, menu bar, toolbar, address box, link.
This task develops a modern study skill - knowing how to best locate information in the World Wide Web. The techniques that students need to acquire are similar to those they would use to access information in more traditional resources such as libraries. Give the students a limited amount of time to do the activity in groups, then write the answers the groups propose on the board. Where there is disagreement, groups must justify their choice. If the class have access to the Internet, they should try to locate this information, perhaps for homework, and report back.
1 Health: Diseases, Drugs
2 Entertainment: Movies
3 Reference: Dictionaries
4 News and Media: Current events
5 Reference: Phone numbers
6 Science: Astronomy
7 Society & Culture: Religion
8 Business & Economy: Employment
Treat this as a scanning exercise, and allow students a very limited time to scan the screens and match them with the titles of the webpages.
1 entertainment 2 news 3 education 4 sport
Each page contains a number of clues which will help students make the correct match. Ask students to justify their choice, and list on the board the clues they use. In this way, you can make overt some of the strategies the more successful readers in the class employ. For example, text B contains words such as sport, fan, football, team, league, fixture, player, any one of which will help students to make the correct match.
If students have Internet access, they can find these webpages or similar at: www.cnn.com (This is a good site for more advanced students to improve their reading and listening comprehension.) web.ukonline.co.uk/members/rw.sweet/soccer www.nbc.com/entertainment www.ucmp.berkeley.edu
A news B sport
C entertainment D education
Even if students are not familiar with a web browser screen, they should be able to identify most of these features. Address box and links are labelled on the screen. You can help them with the others by encouraging them to identify the features using their knowledge of general English: the menu bar offers a list of choices like a restaurant menu, the toolbar provides a selection of buttons to help you perform different tasks, and the title bar comes at the top of the screen like the title of an article. With an advanced class, mention other features not shown on this portion of the screen: scroll bar and status bar. The former is on the right-hand side of the screen and allows you to scroll through the page quickly. The latter is at the bottom of the screen and provides information on links in the page you are currently viewing.
You can find this page at www.cnn.com/EARTH. Key
lb 2a 3f 4d 5e 6c 7g 8h
As a pre-listening task, ask students to explain or guess the function of all ten of the toolbar buttons. The icons will help them. Don't comment on their answers until you correct Task 6. If you do the exercise orally in class, you could ask the students to write brief summaries of the functions of all the buttons as a follow-up exercise or for homework.
1 Stop 2 Favorites 3 Refresh
4 Back 5 Home
The functions of the other buttons are:
Forward: moves to the webpage.that was visited after
the current webpage
Search: connects to a search engine website to allow
the user to find webpages
Print: prints the current webpage
Font: changes the size of the characters on the screen
Mail: starts the email program.
Demonstrate how -ing forms can act like nouns by making a simple substitution table on the board.
football Playing football is good exercise.
the Web Surfing the Web is very popular with
study Studying hard can be difficult.
shops Shopping online saves time.
Elicit further examples from the class.
Explain the grammar rule that -ing forms are also used after prepositions.
This is best done as an individual written task. Point out that with phrasal verbs, such as back up, keep up, it is the verb part, and not the preposition, which takes the -ing form, e.g. backing up, keeping up.
This activity requires good comprehension of the sentences and good knowledge of computers, so give the students plenty of time to do it. Ask them to do this orally in pairs; then write the answers. Students can ask the questions in any order. They may also add further examples of their own. For example:
B: How do you increase the speed of your computer? A: By adding more memory.
1 by using a search engine
2 by clicking with the mouse
3 by using the scroll bar
4 by selecting the Home button
5 by using the Favorites button
6 by joining a newsgroup
7 by adding more memory
8 by sending an attachment
9 by selecting the Stop button 10 by using the mouse
Get the students to work in pairs and match items 1-10 with a-j. Some of the links are easier than others; encourage the students to go quickly through the lists finding 'easy' links first, e.g. caring for your cat = www.petcat.co.uk. Stress that each pair does have a clue to making a link. Ask the students to compare their results with other pairs when they've finished. Finally, discuss the answers with the whole class and explain any links students are still unsure of. If time and facilities allow, your students could explore one of these sites and prepare a brief report to the class on what it contains.
1h 2f 3g 4d 5a 6i 7c 8j 9b 10 e
Get the students into small groups of three or four. Ask them to spend a few minutes discussing and agreeing the contents of their work first: they can use the CNN webpage as a model to give them ideas. They should then allocate tasks; if they write individually, make sure their work is checked by the others before the author writes it up as a finished product. For a college, the menu might include: courses, facilities on campus, accommodation, student life, clubs and societies. For an example, try wnvw.reading.ac.uk.
Many companies now have a website to advertise their goods and services and provide information to their customers. It is therefore becoming important to have a website as good as your competitors.
A lot of work has to be done to create a good website. The individual webpages have to be created using a language called hypertext markup language or HTML, and the individual webpages have to be linked together using hyperlinks. It takes a combination of technical knowledge and artistic skill to make webpages look good. The layout of a sophisticated webpage might contain a combination of text, graphics, animation, and other multimedia elements.
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