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Styles of pronunciation
Styles of speech or pronunciation are those special forms of speech suited to the aim and the contents of the utterance, the circumstances of communication, the character of the audience, etc. A person may pronounce the same word or sequence of words quite differently under different circumstances. (in colloquial ‘and’[n] when unstressed (bread and butter ['bredn 'butэ]) but in serious conversation even when unstressed, might often be pronounced [ænd])
1. D.Jones distinguishes the rapid familiar style, the slower colloquial style, the natural style used in addressing a fair-sized audience, the acquired style of the stage, and the acquired style used in singing.
2. L.V. Shcherba: (1) colloquial style characteristic of people's quiet talk, and (2) full style, which we use when we want to make our speech especially distinct.
3. S.M.Gaiduchic: solemn, "scientific business, official business, everyday, and familiar.
The degree of reduction and assimilation depends on the tempo of speech.
19. 1) Sentence stress is a special prominence given to 1 or more words according to their relative importance in a sentence. The main function of sentence stress is to single the communicative centre of the sentence which introduces new info. The most prominent part of a sentence is the last stressed word which takes the nuclear tone. 3 types of Sentence-stress: a) normal is used to arrange words into sentences or intonation groups phonetically, b) The type of sentence-stress which gives special prominence to a new element in a sentence or an intonation group is called logical stress, c) emphatic stress increases the effort of expression. Distinctive function: In Eng. General questions the final stress falls on the adverbials (in rus.- not) [Do you speak ‘English?], in eng particle not takes the stress, in rus.- not (He did ‘not say a word.). The word Good isn’t stressed in expression (eg. Good morning…) in rus. – yes. In rus. The names of streets are stressed, in eng. – not).
2) Speech rhythm is traditionally defined as recurrence (периодичность) of stressed syllables at more or less equal intervals of time in a speech continuum. The initial unstressed syllables preceding the nucleus are called proclitics, those following the nucleus are called enclitics. The most frequent type of a rhythmic group includes 2-4 syllables, one of them stressed, others unstressed. A rhythmic group may consist of a single word. In speech the type of rhythm depends on the language. Linguists divide languages into 2 groups: syllable-timed like French, Spanish and stress-timed languages, such as English and German. In English all the notional words are stressed, the form-words are fitted in between the stressed ones. The words with double stress may lose one of their stresses (‘seven’teen, ‘number seven’teen, ‘seventeen ‘pencils). When 2 nouns occur together, the 2nd isn’t stressed (‘film star).
4. Phonemeis a minimal abstract linguistic unit realized in speech in the form of speech sounds opposable to other phonemes of the same language to distinguish the meaning of morphemes and words. A phoneme-is a sound in its contrasting position (capable of distinguishing the meaning of a word) Phonology(sound system). The phoneme remains distinctive and unchangeable in any grammatical context. The material aspectEach phoneme is realized in speech as a set of predictable (=depended on the context) speech sounds which are called allophones.
2) Ferdinand de Saussure viewed phonemes as the sum of acoustic impressions and articulatory movements. He also viewed phonemes as disembodied units of the language formed by the differences separating the acoustic image of one sound from the rest of the units. Language in his opinion contains nothing but differences. This approach is called abstractional/ abstract.
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