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Металлические магнитно-мягкие материалы

Классификация магнитных материалов













Тема 2 ч. In this version, the Russian lines have become longer, the syntactical and semantic structures different. Altogether, in such a version the Russian text sounds more natural and creates an image similar to that of the original. Is it a great sin of a transla­tor? Vladimir Nabokov in his essay The Art of Translation men­tioned three such mortal sins:

1."obvious errors due to ignorance or misguided knowl­edge"

2."leaving out tricky passages"

3."transforming the original formula according to his own taste."

It is easy to guess that the first two sins "seem petty" in comparison with the third. Following Nabokov's advice, you may adopt a motto Do not try to improve the author being translated! Yet, you should not distort or forget anything either. This dichot­omy seems a deadlock until you find some narrow pass between the poles.

Thus even with vers libre one has to transform the original formula of the imaginary world, otherwise the poem would sound rotten in the target language, breaking the rules of good taste for the sake of primitive emotional perceptibility. The main matter of translating vers libre will be conveyed in syntax, though be conveyed the rules of euphony in the target language is also important (in our example, the [k-k] joints of the first variant simply kill any idea of a lyrical poem).


Иллюстративный и раздаточный лекционный материал в разрезе тем дисциплины: словари «Oxford 2006», рефераты по мировой литературе

Список рекомендуемой литературы: Казакова Т.А., Практикум по художественному переводу, С.-Петербург, 2004., Алексеева И.С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. С.- Пб, 2004.

Глоссарий:syntactical structures, semantic structures, altogether, similar to, a great sin of a transla­tor, essay, mortal sins, obvious errors, ignorance knowl­edge, misguided knowl­edge, tricky passages, transforming the original formula, in comparison with, a motto, to distort, this dichot­omy, a deadlock, would sound rotten, for the sake of, primitive emotional perceptibility, to be conveyed, the rules of euphony.


Тема 2 ч. Перевод и стиль. Стилистическая интерпретация эквивалентности в переводе.Принцип функциональных эквивалентов. Гомеостаза структуры в процессе перевода. Функциональные стилистические сдвиги в переводе. Перевод художественной поэзии.

Much more complicated is the matter of translating a tradi­tionally structured poem. You must take into consideration not only the vast variety of metres, types of rhyme and forms of stanza, not to mention the individuality of their combination in a par­ticular source poem, but also the highly probable difference in the way they function in the two languages. What a pure iambic pentameter can mean to English perception may not correspond to how and what it means to a Russian reader, and vice versa. Some translators lament the lack of rhyming resources in English when it comes to translating the strong, pure rhymes of, say, Mandelstam. Presumably, this is what makes James Greene, the trans­lator of Mandelstam's poetry into English, modestly admit: "I have mostly had to eschew rhyme (but not half-rhyme, internal rhymes or assonance)... total "faithfulness", were it possible — the "same" metre, rhyme-scheme, pattern of sounds, number of syllables, line-length, etc., etc. — would be an absurdity." Just so — an absurdity. To found your translation on this cornerstone, you will find it natural to use trochee instead of iambus, two feet instead of four, and to*change the number of lines. Moreover, since rhyme is merely a nuisance, away with it! Then, as it hap­pens, Anna Akhmatova turns from a solemn rhythmical and me­lodic voice into clumsy, incomprehensible prose (in the everso literal translation by the diligent Judith Henschemeiyer). You may call it "adaptation", "version", "imitation", etc.


Иллюстративный и раздаточный лекционный материал в разрезе тем дисциплины: словари «Oxford 2006», рефераты по мировой литературе

Список рекомендуемой литературы: Казакова Т.А., Практикум по художественному переводу, С.-Петербург, 2004., Алексеева И.С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. С.- Пб, 2004.


Тема 2 ч. Перевод и стиль. Типология стилистических изменений в переводе.Модель стилистического построения текста в переводе. Классификация тематических и стилистических изменений в переводе. Перевод художественной поэзии.

The Russian tradition of poetry translation has developed the opposite point of view on how to represent English verse in Russian. Its basic principles are solid (yet, surprisingly, quite achievable): since the instructions of Valery Bryusov and Nikolai Gumilyov, an English poem in Russian translation should meet the three requirements: equivalent metre, rhyme and line pattern. Comparing this with the quotation from James Greene above, you can see the difference that lies in one particular term: instead of the "same" we use the word "equivalent," which may not neces­sarily be "the same" in body, but the same in function. In the other words, of value is not formal but functional equivalence. Anyhow, you cannot expect a valuable translation substitute for a poem when the body has three arms instead of two, and, proba­bly, only one eye. What Bryusov called "the method of transla­tion" is the selection by the translator of the most important fea­tures in the source poem, those that determine its system of imag­ery; it may be the metric pattern or rhyme, alliteration or syntactic structure, a key word or a stylistic device. The proper choice of the method of translation allows the translator to reconstruct the most important components of the source poem in the target language. Certainly, one cannot expect that every formal detail of the source text is translatable but the task is to define which of them may be neglected with the least negative effects.


Иллюстративный и раздаточный лекционный материал в разрезе тем дисциплины: словари «Oxford 2006», рефераты по мировой литературе

Список рекомендуемой литературы: Казакова Т.А., Практикум по художественному переводу, С.-Петербург, 2004., Алексеева И.С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. С.- Пб, 2004.

Глоссарий:Its basic principles are solid, the three requirements: equivalent metre, rhyme and line pattern, the quotation from, not neces­sarily, functional equivalence, the source poem, the metric pattern or rhyme, alliteration or syntactic structure, a key word or a stylistic device, proper choice of the method of translation, important components, neglected, with the least negative effects.


Тема 1 ч. Перевод и стиль. Типология стилистических изменений в переводе.Стилистическое соответствие. Стилистическая субституция. Стилистическая замена-инверсия. Стилистическое усиление. Перевод художественной поэзии.

To put into words the main difference between Russian and English traditions of poetry translation, we may concede that Rus­sian translators often fall into the sin of "making the foreign poet sound better in Russian," while their British/American counter­parts may feel at ease in making him (or her) not sound at all by actual throwing off the original versification pattern, as too rigid, "for the sake of a new order." Which is probably no less a sin. The results are dubious: in Russia, non-English speakers (read­ers) read, know and love a whole host of British/American poets, minor as well as major, while to the average American reader the names of major 20th — century Russian poets are at best obscure and actually known only to the university public.

Some poets are renowned in the English-speaking USA, for example, not for their poetry as translated into English but rather for their tragic fates — like Marina Tsvetaeva or Osip Mandelshtam. Quoting Susan Miron from her review on Tsvetaeva by Viktoria Schweitzer, "Outside the former Soviet Union, Marina Tsvetaeva (1892-1941) is far better known today for her suicide by hanging than for her poetry." This is due to translation to a certain extent. Tsvetaeva without her dashing rhymes, ner­vous but well-arranged metre, and alliterative links between key words, the unsurpassed play on sounds, which makes the very heart of her poetry and gives a clue to the associative and imagi­nary content, is a mere Jane Doe or some other decent poetic woman with no voice of her own. The purely semantic principle of translation is definitely inadequate in the case of Tsvetaeva.


Иллюстративный и раздаточный лекционный материал в разрезе тем дисциплины: словари «Oxford 2006», рефераты по мировой литературе

Список рекомендуемой литературы: Казакова Т.А., Практикум по художественному переводу, С.-Петербург, 2004., Алексеева И.С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. С.- Пб, 2004.

Глоссарий:we may concede, counter­parts, may feel at ease, actual throwing off, the original versification pattern, too rigid, no less a sin, are dubious,

Тема 2 ч. Перевод и стиль. Типология стилистических изменений в переводе.Стилистическая типизация. Стилистическая индивидуализация. Стилистическое ослабление. Стилистическая нивелировка. Стилистическая утрата. Перевод художественной поэзии.

There is a possible productive way for the theory of trans­lation and translators of poetry, the comparative generative pros­ody. It may serve as the basis for the theory of poetic translation that will allow predicting the variety of actual prosodic parallels between English and Russian systems of versification or reconstructing the basic model by its variants. There are some approaches to such a theory in the studies of prosody from both general and national positions1. The concept of kernel rhythmic struc­tures and their direct and indirect connection with the cognitive and emotional processes is very important in understanding, in­terpreting and translating poetry2. Anyhow, when translating po­etry, we should consider the form as more than a surface or liter­ary decoration. In fact, in true poetry, it is as integral a part of its content and imagery as is its syntactic structure or stylistic devic­es. To undertake a comparative study of the national peculiarities of the relationship between the prosodic form and contents in Russian and English literary traditions will definitely contribute to the theory of poetic translation. Yet a translator can make his own observations in the practical work on translating poetry from this point of view. For example, if a poet, classical or modern, uses the iambic tetrameter, it is only sensible on the part of the translator to consider the possible semantic, aesthetic and psy­chological functions of that verse form.


Иллюстративный и раздаточный лекционный материал в разрезе тем дисциплины: словари «Oxford 2006», рефераты по мировой литературе

Список рекомендуемой литературы: Казакова Т.А., Практикум по художественному переводу, С.-Петербург, 2004., Алексеева И.С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. С.- Пб, 2004.


Тема 1 ч. Перевод и стиль. Стилистические нормы воспринимающей литературы и текст перевода.Стратификация литературных норм в стиле перевода. Стилистический код.Перевод художественной поэзии.

There is yet another obstacle for a translator of poetry, the one of cultural symbols, that is, words that have wide and impor­tant associative force in the source culture but are obscure, if at all comprehensible, for the culture of translation. When working in prose, such symbols may be commented upon, transformed by means of description, or replaced by some synonymous phrase. However, the verse space is limited, and one cannot enlarge the number of units in a line where each word needs weigh heavy. Actually, one of "national features," this phenomenon is untranslatable in poetry; yet translators somehow manage to reconstruct even such "thorns" in the flesh of a poetic text. The rule is, you may omit an illusion or two, if untranslatable, but you should detect them in the source text so as not to misinterpret by a wrong substitution. The main problem about them is that they carry a strong emotive charge for the native readers of the source text and lack it in the perception of the readers in the target language when distorted, or misinterpreted.

Иллюстративный и раздаточный лекционный материал в разрезе тем дисциплины: словари «Oxford 2006», рефераты по мировой литературе

Список рекомендуемой литературы: Казакова Т.А., Практикум по художественному переводу, С.-Петербург, 2004., Алексеева И.С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. С.- Пб, 2004.


Тема 2 ч. Перевод и стиль. Стилистические нормы воспринимающей литературы и текст перевода.Изобразительные нормы в структуре перевода. Эстетические нормы. Эстетический пафос выражения в стилистической системе. Перевод художественной поэзии.

The famous poem by Mandelstam Мы живем, под собою не чуя страны does not direct­ly name Stalin but introduces him through the easily recognizable descriptive phrases:

А где хватит на полразговорца,

Там припомнят кремлевского горца.

«Кремлевский горец» turns into a vague "the mountain man of the Kremlin" in the translation of Richard Dauenhauer (though it would perhaps have been more appropriate to use the Kremlin Highlander or the Highlander in the Kremlin or the Cau­casian in the Kremlin becuse it also impies some national idea while Highlander is almost exclusively associated with Scotland), and the translator feels it necessary to supply the poem with a commentary where the name is mentioned: "When this poem fell into the hands of Stalin's secret police, Mandelshtam was arrested..." This poem became a symbol of anti-Stalinist resistance for generations of Russian intelligentsia, and every word in it has an association with this or that political figure or feature of those hard times. Another example of misinterpretation of a symbol in this poem is the line Тараканьи смеются усища translated as His moustache laughs like a pair of cockroaches. Meanwhile, the word «.тараканьи» refers to the one Cockroach (also «Тараканище» from the famous poem of Chukovsky), the dread­ful notorious Stalin himself, and definitely not to "a pair." Thus interpreted, the image lacks its nightmarish metaphorical quality and becomes a mere simile with a mildly comical effect.


Иллюстративный и раздаточный лекционный материал в разрезе тем дисциплины: словари «Oxford 2006», рефераты по мировой литературе

Список рекомендуемой литературы: Казакова Т.А., Практикум по художественному переводу, С.-Петербург, 2004., Алексеева И.С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. С.- Пб, 2004.


Тема 2 ч. Перевод и стиль. Стилистические нормы воспринимающей литературы и текст перевода.Принцип социальной обусловленности выбора изобразительных средств. Дифференцированность изобразительных средств. Микро - и макростилистические уровни перевода. Перевод художественной поэзии.

To sum up, when translating a poem we are dealing not only with the surface contents of it conveyed through the seman­tics of words but with a cluster of interacting components, from metre and rhyme to cultural symbolism, where every subtle de­tail contributes to the imagery of the whole text. Alter the metre, abandon the rhyme, or neglect the cultural symbol-and the re­sult is a text that differs from the original in its basic qualities. Some translators try to justify such transformations with refer­ence to the target reader's interests or preferences but the argu­ment lacks cogency as, more often than not, it reflects the inter­ests and preferences of the translator himself. The cogent argu­ment should be the one that results in better understanding the unique achievements of the source poetry.

This section includes classic as well as modern poets with samples of translation for comparison. Each unit begins with in­troductory notes containing some biographical data, comments on the works of the poet and on the particular problems of trans­lating them. Tasks for translation are supplied with directions and recommendations for the translator.


Иллюстративный и раздаточный лекционный материал в разрезе тем дисциплины: словари «Oxford 2006», рефераты по мировой литературе

Список рекомендуемой литературы: Казакова Т.А., Практикум по художественному переводу, С.-Петербург, 2004., Алексеева И.С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. С.- Пб, 2004.


Тема 1 ч. . Стилистические нормы воспринимающей литературы и текст перевода.Дифференцированность изобразительных средств. Микро - и макростилистические уровни перевода. . Drama Translation Techniques.

Translating drama, we face a number of specific problems. A drama text differs from any other fiction text because it is meant not for reading but for performing; it consists of a dialogue, which is connected with the proper sound and fitness. Thus it should be assessed from the point of view of time and intelligibility for the supposed audience. The text is to be pronounced and performed, and this action differs from the ordinary conversation. In every­day speech we may act resolutely or shyly, confidently or thought­fully, indifferently or affectionately — and use whichever sen­tence structures and accents. But when a text is meant for scenic performance, the playwright selects sentences so that they should predetermine the way of utterance. When the character is shy, he uses shy, uncertain, "shaky" constructions; when he is authoritative, his syntax must be authoritative too. When, in an English play, a personage commands

Off you go! We need to choose between a few Russian variants, and the ultimate decision should be based not so on linguistic principles as on the mood and character judgement. In Russian, he may say: «Пошел вон! » «Прочь отсюда!» «Убирайся!» «Вали отсюда!» Each of them manifests a different degree of self-confidence and, preferred by a translator, will form different characters; Убирайся reveals an Irritated and defensive mood, while Вали отсюда implies a rude mid aggressive personality; Прочь отсюда is too intellectual, and Пошел вон may be too archaic for a contemporary. When a personage is rude and aggressive, by the author's grace, it is difficult for a Russian spectator to perceive him as such if he uses phrases like «Прочь отсюда!» or «Убирайся!» though they may be quite equivalent from the grammatical point of view.

Timing and intonation are essential for a drama text. Too many words in a phrase necessary to restore its grammatical mean­ing may not have serious consequences when we translate! a nov­el but in a play or film such a transformation will make the scenic speech incomprehensible. Very often, to translate some syntactic structures from English into Russian, one must enlarge the space of the sentence, which becomes a complication in a drama text. The English phrase (Gwendolen, from "The Importance of Being Earnest") "If you would care to verify the incident, pray do so" may be presented in different forms in Russian:


Если вам угодно проверить, действительно ли этособытие имело место, прошу вас убедиться.

Если вам угодно этопроверить пожалуйста.


In the first variant, the semantics of the source text is trans­lated more explicitly but the phrase becomes twice as long in Russian. The second variant compresses the spacious phrase into one word это and thus economises on the syntactic space. Cer­tainly, the second variant is more convenient to use on the stage, from the phonic point of view. Yet there is another aspect, the stylistic one. Gwendolen is said to be very polite, which means her speech may be perceived as next to caricature, something exaggerated. With this, the first variant seems more expressive, though it takes more time to pronounce the remark and to per­ceive it in Rassian.

To translate a drama text is to reconstruct an adequate ba­sis for performance, which includes proper timing and audible comprehension, cultural and linguistic stereotypes to be perceived as authentic. Translated dramatic works, there sometimes reveal conflicts as follows: in a dialogue it is mentioned that this or that personage is rich or elegant, while a puzzled spectator can see the mentioned rich person wrapped in something like rags. Such a situation was actually reconstructed in the stage version of

Chekhov's «Чайка» (The Seagull) as translated into English and staged at Rutgers University (USA). The collision may be based on the cultural stereotype of "Usually Russians look shabby."

Another aspect of the same problem is compatibility be­tween the mood of an episode and the structure of a sentence or the choice of words. There is essential difference in syntactic rules and communicative functions of words of the same mean­ing between English and Russian. What sounds brief and ex­pressive in English may appear too wordy, complex and lanky in Russian. Accordingly, what is vivid and expressive in Rus­sian, often becomes too lofty and archaic or, on the contrary, too rude and low in English. The translator has to interpret the drama text he translates, as if he himself were a director of the performance. It is important to analyse characters, moods and relations in the play. Thus, translating, we are to have our own point of view on what and how is going on at the stage, other­wise, the text will remain rigid and alien to the audience while the play is being performed.

Another problem is the cultural gap. When we come across this or that realia in the text meant for reading, we may find the way out using comments, descriptions, or the like, that is, by us­ing extra-text. Nothing of the kind is appropriate in a drama text meant for performance. In Chekhov's Seagull Arkadina has a quar­rel with her son, and is so irritated that she insults him, shouting at him in Russian, «Киевский мещанин!» The word meshchanin, quite neutral in itself (town dweller or burger as opposed to an esquire, a noble man), from the point of view of its stylistic status, could be considered an insult in Russia in the times of the turn of the 20th century, when certain "low" or "mean" qualities were implied, peculiar to this social group! Using the word, Ark­adina meant that her son Konstantin was much below her in so­cial status: she was a noblewoman by birth, while he was a son of a common man, no gentleman, thus himself not a gentleman by birth, conceivably, low and mean as a personality. But the En­glish translation gives a quite inappropriate substitute "You are a Kievan burger!" This phrase is a literal translation of the Russian words but absolutely wrong in the cultural context of the play because the English phrase lacks any emotive implications. An American spectator may be puzzled knowing not why it is so mean to be a dweller of Kiev. Probably, it might be more appro­priate to use English substitutions "You are a mere nobody!" or "You are not a gentleman]"

When we translate a play, we distinguish whether it is a tragedy or a comedy, a modern or a classical work, a fantasy or a psychological drama. But the hardest challenge is a nationally biased play. In the comedy they use a lot of folk phrases, the street language, idioms and names of which are clear and com­prehensible to a native speaker but inevitably lose their bright colouration in translation. The selected text is a play of Alex­ander Ostrovsky, an outstanding Russian playwright whose lan­guage was deeply rooted in the national character and history. He invented a lot of words and names that became popular. In a way, he may be compared with Sheridan, whose language is almost untranslatable into Russian. The characters of Ostrovsky speak the language of their own, in which even the form of a word is important to convey a lot of subtext and implicit shades of mean­ing. Suffice it to mention such forms as «маменька», «эка»,, «сердце-вещун», «заела», etc. Usually, such words and forms lose their expressive power when translated into English, and with them Ostrovsky's characters lose part of their individuality.

The problem of the "national colouring" is not only associ­ated with drama. However, it is in this kind of text that national colouration is especially complicated because it penetrates into all components of the text: it colours the language of dialogues, contents, form, and authorial remarks. The first task that each translator faces is about what is to be saved first and foremost. Strictly speaking, the major "national" component of a play, that is, its language, is inevitably lost in any translation. Dressed in their national clothes but speaking a foreign language, the characters appear very unusual, even funny, on the stage. Probably, the way out may be found in some "fourth dimension": on the one part, the characters are dressed somewhat unusual, slightly marked with "foreignness," while in their translated speech ap­peared words or structures from the source language.

Linguistic means not only differ in form in different lan­guages, they also differ greatly in their emotive power. National peculiarities in the manner of speaking are quite often untranslat­able. Such may be considered Russian diminutive suffixes, which caused many typical misinterpretations in English, like little fa­ther for «батюшка». But is it to become dad, daddy or Papa? Another problem is that of English "you" when addressing close relatives and friends. Each time the translator has to assess whether this or that relationship is close enough to translate the English you by «ты» or «вы». The flower girl from Pygmalion speaks cockney, which is imitated in written, "Ow, eezye-oon san, is e?" In Russian, her speech loses much of colour, and she speaks quite literary, even rather intellectual, «А, так это ваш сын?» The problem is that it makes no sense to imitate her cockney accent phonetically, but a translator may use some other markers of a common speech, grammar, for instance, «Ага, ваш, значица, сыночек! »

How many imitative words and structures can be used in translation not to break the impression of the whole play? There is a rule in the theory of translation which recommends to retain (or imitate) only those source units that the target language speak­ers can perceive as "purveyors" of important national informa­tion. Then, such details should be comprehensible to the audi­ence, for there is no way for supplying any volume of cultural comments to a theatre pit. A widely spread situation is the En­glish

I love you! Used very often, especially in modern stage or screen works. It would be a mistake to always translate it into Russian as Я люблю тебя! In Russian, the phrase is more solemn and sounds inappropriate in many common situations when you can just say something like «Держись!», «Я с тобой!», «Все хорошо!» or use gestures and mimics.

Some other national details may sound too heavy when redundant, for example, a great number of inches, pints, or gal­lons, turned into Russian «дюймы, пинты и галлоны» and poured onto a poor spectator from the stage, make him more than puz­zled, they make him bored. The rule may be "Do not overdo!" It is preferable to use international measures in most cases, and only those which are specific for the particular text and make a colour­ful detail are to be saved in the imitated form. To such a category we may refer national currency: it would be inappropriate to trans­late cents as «копейки». Yet a sovereign may be comfortably replaced by «фунт» in Russian, for it sounds national enough and at the same time comprehensible, whereas «соверен» is rath­er enigmatic to most Russian spectators.

Probably, the most reasonable way for a translator of a drama text is to work out a balance of transformation principles; we must measure not only the text but also the character and sit­uation to decide when to prefer a semantic equivalent — and when to reconstruct a stylistic effect or intonation.

To sum up are the following recommendations:

• Assess the timing and rhythm of the source play and try to reconstruct an analogous structure in the target language.

• Study the mood and temper of characters to follow them regaining their speech in translation.

• Study the style and semanticseof the source text and fol­low the functional strategy of their reconstruction.

• Study cultural and historical details in the text and look for their reconstruction.

• Assess national colouring in the text under translation and select a proper strategy of its reconstruction.


Иллюстративный и раздаточный лекционный материал в разрезе тем дисциплины: словари «Oxford 2006», рефераты по мировой литературе

Список рекомендуемой литературы: Казакова Т.А., Практикум по художественному переводу, С.-Петербург, 2004., Алексеева И.С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. С.- Пб, 2004.



Тема 1 ч. Проблемы семиотики перевода. Межвременной фактор в переводе. Культурный код, реализованный в тексте оригинала и перевода. Реалии. Экзотация в переводном тексте. Перевод фольклора. Translating British Folk Tales into Russian

British folk tales. Translating a British folk tale we should not forget that recording of the tales usually gives only a pale shadow of the original narration. Beyond the recorded text are the voices, tone modulations, mimics and gestures of a storyteller, as well as the reaction of the audience: we should not forget that a folk tale is a rich performance based on an ages-old tradition; besides, the story was usually accompanied by music. In addition, it should be taken into consideration that most such stories, recorded in English, were originally narrated in one of the Celtic languages, and in a colloquial variant at that, as they were mostly told among the rural popu­lation.

The great bulk of village dwellers could neither read nor write, yet their memories were very keen and their imagina­tions vivid, and when they heard a story they often remem­bered it almost word for word -to be reproduced for the rest of their lives. Those with an especial gift of memory could keep and perform hundreds of such folk tales in the old days. They were true storytellers. In this way folk tales were passed down for hundreds of years, the main points of the tale remaining unaltered, though some colourful details might migrate from tale to tale and even be borrowed from other traditions.

The world of folk tales is rich and vivid. They may be sad and jolly, fearsome and funny, full of supernatural beings and absolutely true to life. Alongside fairies, goblins and bog­garts, peasants, soldiers, fishermen, hunters, kings and shepherds live and act. The other world that appears in the folk tale, however fantastic, bears some resemblance to the land­scape, climate and mood of the country that produced it by vir­tue of folk imagination and humour. This national flavour is one of the most important features of the folk tale.

To translate a folk tale not only into another language but also into another culture, sometimes, as, in our case, very far from the source one, requires some additional knowledge about the very idea of a folk or fairy tale. The roots of a fairy tale are very deep; some of its contents and personages may go back to a myth, but unlike myth, a fairy tale is pure fiction, poetic or humorous, it usually retains some very ancient con­tent structures, types of plots, relationships and world view. Most of historians date the heyday of the folk tale to medieval times when ritual features and sacred images of gods, spirits and ancestors were slowly changed into stories where people became the main heroes, be they kings or shepherds. .

The British tradition of folk tales is very rich and com­plicated as consisting of many sub-traditions, Scottish, Welsh, English, Irish and many others. Of the two tales included here one comes from the North of England, the other from Wales. The northern story (Tops or Butts?) is typical for many Euro­pean traditions; we may find its counterpart in the Russian tale Мужик и медведь. In a way, it is easier to translate than the other, though we should always keep in mind that the story belongs to a different tradition, and the very name Boggard is less definite in its imagery

than Медведь. When dealing with English folklore tradition, we must bear in mind that this tradition is closely connected with various kinds of apparitions, phantoms, ghosts and bogies, that is, with figures alien to the mortal world. Thus, a boggard, or goblin is closer to the Rus­sian idea of нежить, нелюдъ, which means that in a translated English story we should not replace a boggard by a bear but by something like a Russian леший, боровой, полевой, степовой.

A typical framing formula begining an English folk tale will include once and there as tokens of the other world's space and time. It is more or less easily translated by the similar Russian forms жил-был, однажды, когда-то. But a special feature of English folk tales is the exact naming of a place, like a small farm near Kentchurch in Herefordshire, the elements of which may be purely imaginary (not in this case, though: Kentchurch is situated about halfway between Hereford, county town of Herefordshire, and Abergavenny) but sound very much like real ones. The Russian folklore tradition avoids any exact naming of places; it is always uncertain or may include such marks as на краю деревни,

у леса, в одной деревне, etc. Thus, when transliterated into Russian, imaginary toponyms sound very much like real places, which makes such a story sound less like a fairy tale and more like a legend or even a true story of obscure date.

The border between this and that world, that is, between cosmos and chaos, often takes the form of the hedge, a feature well-known in England but not in Russia. When a boggart (bog­gard) seeks to cross a hedge, he has to overcome a real obstacle, whereas in Russia the role of the hedge is played by a simple boundary-strip, межа, which is most often merely a mark on the surface of the land, or a stone on the border. If we translate the hedge as живая изгородь, in Russian it sounds too descriptive; загородка, забор, изгородь would be rather strange for a field, being more appropriate to a vegetable-garden. This cultural gap creates a certain shift in the comprehension of a story in translation.

Welsh folk tales are usually more romantic and include ancient features, like spirits of lakes and mountains, fami­ly myths and relationship between human and supernatural beings. Their style is more lofty and elevated, and includes rhymes and poetic diction. To balance this, a story is well supplied with "precise" geography: every imaginary lake, mountain, village, country, let alone hero, has its own name that sounds even more Welsh than a normal one. Abundant use is made of double consonants and unusual letters (ll, dd and ff are separate letters in Welsh), which make such names sound very old, strange and mythical. To match this in Russian, we may use variants; for example, in the parish of Treveglwys in Russian may become в округе Тревеглис, while a cot commonly called Twt y Cwmrws will give хижина, известная под названием Тут-и-Кумрус. The main hero of the Welsh tale Gronw may be translated in different forms: Гроно, Грану, Грон or some other way.


Иллюстративный и раздаточный лекционный материал в разрезе тем дисциплины: словари «Oxford 2006», рефераты по мировой литературе

Список рекомендуемой литературы: Казакова Т.А., Практикум по художественному переводу, С.-Петербург, 2004., Алексеева И.С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. С.- Пб, 2004.


Тема 2 ч. Проблемы семиотики перевода. Перевод в литературной коммуникации.Модель литературной коммуникации. Выбор литературной стратегии. Акт первичной литературной коммуникации. Акт вторичной литературной коммуникации Перевод художественной поэзии. Translating Native American Folklore into Russian.

Native American (Indian) folklore. The indigenous peo­ples of America have a very rich and special folklore tradition, with their own names, means of presenting the supernatural, sa­cred formulas and motives. In many ways, the Indian folk tale resembles the European, but in general it contains more archaic and tribal features.

Many Indian stories begin with the time formulas of "long, long ago" or "when the world was young (or new)," or "in the times before our times;" another type of the time formula is "in the days of the animal people" or "in the days of our grandfa­thers' grandfathers." A special motif for the time formula is "when the people had not come out yet (had not emerged from under­ground)." These formulas are very unusual for the European tra­ditions of folklore but may be found in the myths and legends of the peoples of Siberia. To translate them into Russian different ways may be chosen: в давние времена; давным-давно; во времена наших предков; в те времена, когда мир был еще юным и свежим; когда мир населяли только звери и птицы; когда человека на земле еще не было; в прежние времена; and the like.

Very special was the idea of many worlds before this world. Many Indian peoples believed that at least three or, according to some traditions, four worlds had existed before our world, and each of them had been destroyed either by water or fire, or explosion. Thus, many Indian stories of the past begin with the formula "in the world before this world," or "in the time of first (second, third) world" and so on. When translated, such formulas become rather awkward in Russian: «5 мире, который существовал до нашего мира)) or «во времена первого мира. » There is, though, prorably a solution that preserves the idea of multiple times while not specifying any exact number: «в одном из предыдущих миров»

Unlike many European traditions, including the Russian, American Indians have a large number of folk tales that in many features have retained the initial myths of creation, of the end, of the world, of cultural quest and totemic ancestors. The Creator of the World may be ubiquitous; with different tribes he may have different earthly forms and substitutes, such as Coyote, Gluscap (Great Frog), Monobozho (Great, or White Hare), Hummingbird, Old Man Above, Spider Woman, etc. What makes such tales quite unusual is the idea that when there were no people, animals were people on the earth and could speak, hunt and marry. Since those times, human beings have replaced them as people, but there is a widespread belief that one day animals will come back to live in peace and friendship with people. This animal motif is very strong in the stories, where one can meet such characters as Chief White Bear, Great Father Beaver, White Buffalo Woman or Big Brother Wolf.

Translating their names is a problem in some cases, for White may not necessarily mean the white colour but rather a sacred formula of belonging to the other world. Thus, White Buf­falo Woman may change her colour to white, brown or black, while White is her sacred title rather than a true colour. In transla­tion, we can find such Russian forms of her name as Белая Бизониха, Белая Женщина-бизон, Священная Бизониха, or even Божественная Корова. Even more various are the names used in translation for Spider Woman: Паучиха, Матушка Паучиха, Женщина-паук, Бабушка Паучиха, Священная Паучиха, etc.

Another special feature of Indian myths and tales is the animation of natural forces and objects such as rocks, stones, mountains, lakes and rivers, trees and herbs, rainbow and water, sun and moon, stars and winds. They can move and speak, cheat and be cheated, struggle and weep, marry and give birth to chil­dren, hunt and grieve like human beings but with some supernat­ural power. Old Man Coyote may cry and appeal to the Creator Mount Sheep fights and pursues him, while Mountain Sheep may come along, cheat Coyote, laugh and run away to his hiding place.

In the stories and beliefs of the southern Indians, such as the Hopi, Zuni or Navajo, mostly agricultural tribes, Mother Corn or Corn Maiden appears very often in different images. The name is also translated in different manner into Russian; she may be­come Матушка Кукуруза, Кукурузная Матушка, Маисовая Дева, Дух Кукурузы, Мать-Кукуруза, etc. Most often by the con­text and the guise assumed the Corn Spirit prompts this or that Russian name for the mythical personage.

Quite often in such cases the translator faces a gender prob­lem. In an ordinary, say, geographical text, "Mountain Sheep" may be translated more or less easily, though in at least two ways: «гора Шип» and «Овечья гора»; the former sounds more En­glish, whereas the latter is closer to the Russian tradition of nam­ing mountains and hills. But in the context where Mountain Sheep is a living being, like the one who the insulted Coyote, it becomes he, a warrior, a hunter, and behaves very much like a man. In translation "mountain" becomes «гора», which is feminine in Russian, and it sounds quite unnatural to say «гора Шип засмеялся и убежал». It is more appropriate to choose a substi­tute for «гора» but of a masculine gender. It might be, for in­stance, something like Овечий Пик, though "Sheep" is probably a real surname.

Special and different from European traditions too, are for­mulas of the sacred. These may include an ability to transform, to come back to life, change colour or size, wear some special clothes or do unusual deeds. One such formula is to have a great medicine about oneself. The idea of medicine is rather complicat­ed, first of all due to the difference of folk traditions, and also due to the first collectors of the Indian stories when they were regis­tered in English in the 19th century. Back then such formulas as "medicine," "spirit," "power," "mystery" were used to somehow represent the untranslatable original words for ideas of the sacred and supernatural in the Native Americans' mythical picture of the world. For example, the Algonquin word manitou meant many things at once: it was a supernatural force, an unknown power or ability, a magic feature, an invisible cause of life and movement; it is usually associated with both breath and mystery. Actually, manitou is what makes things alive and be as they are to prove their oneness; among the living beings and in the real world man­itou may be specially concentrated in some people (medicine men) or animals, birds and even lakes, mountains, herbs or other ob­jects. Such a concentrated ability was called orenda. Among the supernatural beings, concentrated manitou makes wakan, super­natural forces, like water, winds or rocks. When these words were recorded in the process of myth collections, they took different forms in English (spirit, god, power, medicine, mystery, and the like).

Given this, a name like Sweet Medicine is very difficult to translate into Russian: Сладкое Лекарство is not appropriate to imply the associative power of the name of that legendary chief and shaman, an Indian cultural hero; more suitable probably would be combinations like Великий (Вещий) Целитель (Волхв).


Иллюстративный и раздаточный лекционный материал в разрезе тем дисциплины: словари «Oxford 2006», рефераты по мировой литературе

Список рекомендуемой литературы: Казакова Т.А., Практикум по художественному переводу, С.-Петербург, 2004., Алексеева И.С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. С.- Пб, 2004.


Тема 1 ч. Проблемы семиотики перевода. Перевод в литературной коммуникации. Типология метакоммуникационной деятельности. Типология метатекстов. Перевод художественной поэзии. Translating Russian Folk Tales into English. Russian folk tales.

There are many similarities between the English and Russian folk tale. These indude the magic func­tions of the dark forest and of the remote and distant land. In both traditions one can come across brave princes and beautiful but enchanted maidens, evil creatures and ugly spirits, shape-shifters and helpers of different kinds, etc. But there is also difference. Whereas in the Russian fairy-tale landscape the river and field dominate alongside the forest, the English folk tale will often mention some beautiful lake or a magic knoll that may appear and disappear by turns. The magic creatures themselve are differ­ent. If the Russian Змей Горыныч is more or less like an English dragon, then such images as БабаЯга, Морозко or Жар-птица are specific for the Russian tradition, while elves, giants and gob­lins are typically English.

The different features go deeper than the appearance. Baba Yaga looks more or less national, though some of her features are pan-European, like the hooked nose, shaggy hair, relationship with the dark forest creatures and so on, and do not contradict the im­age of an evil hag from an English or Celtic folk tale. Yet a Rus­sian Yaga is much more powerful than an English witch, much more dangerous and is able to cover huge distance very swiftly. She is obviously the chief of the magic world and a relative of the most terrible creatures in it. The origins of the Russian Yaga are tooted in the nation's far-off heathen past when she was one of I he most important deities, the mistress of life and death, the owner mid protector of fire, the lady of the Dark. Most fairy tales with her as a personage date from the very early times.

Taking into account the age of Baba Yaga, it is not correct ever to refer to her as a witch in translation, for the expression "a witch" in the English tradition refers to a kind of heathen priest­ess, a woman of spells and magic rather than to a supernatural, or sacred being. Transliteration is thus more appropriate in this case, for it reconstructs an image as exotic and unusual as it might be. When she is referred to as «ведьма» in Russian, it should be trans­lated as a spirit, a bogy, if it is a description, while the substitute of "witch" or "hag" should be only used when she is being ad­dressed. For example, the Russian phrase «Баба Яга была страшная лесная ведьма» should be translated as «Baba Yaga was a frightful spirit of the forest."But when Ivan Tsarevich ad­dresses her «Ax ты, старая ведьма, ты бы вперед напоила, накормила, баньку истопила да спать уложила! » it is better to use "witch" or "hag" in translation: "Hey, you, old hag,you'd better welcome me to eat at pleasure and to sleep at leisure!"

Another translation problem is connected with the rhymed mnemonic formulas of time and space, or symbols of the sacred. When in Russian such archaic phrases are used as «близко ли, далеко ли долго ли, коротко ли,» or «девушка скотину поила, дрова-воду носила, тесто творила, всех кормила,» it! Is rather difficult to find a proper functional substitute for them, j If we use a simple semantic technique, the result sounds less expressive, and the target text lacks the emotive "fairy-tale" back­ground: "Be it close or far away, sooner or later" sounds much more logical and thus less magic. Any attempt to find a function­al equivalent to the source formula faces the challenge of rhyme; and we may try using some parallel constructions to reconstruct the source rhythm in English: "Their way was neither long nor short; their pace was neither fast nor slow."

There is also a general linguistic problem that a acquires; particular twist when translating folk tales: the question of affec­tionate suffixes and forms of address. When a Russian fairy-tale, personage addresses a man, use may be made of such forms as «добрый молодец», «стрелец-удалец», or «батюшка, царь батюшка» (when addressing an elder or high-ranking person). They often appear in the existing English translations as "kind boy" or "good archer"; while батюшка amusingly becomes "lit­tle father". They add a very strange emotive component to the translated text, probably, making it sound far too exotic. Mean­while, добрый молодец is not "kind boy" or "fine fellow" but "a brave man," or just "a brave" (though, on its own this is used almost exclusively for American Indian warriors); and стрелец-молодец is semantically equivalent to something like "a brave ranger," or "a valiant guard," which fits the idea of an armed man at somebody's service, a folklore hero.

When a woman is addressed, Russian folklore often uses the term «красная девица», in which «красная» does not mean "red" but "pretty, comely, beautiful". Thus, it would be wrong to transform it, as it happens in English, into "little red cheeks" or "ruddy-blushy"; more appropriate may be "beauty" or "fair maid­en". Similarly, in the Russian девица, the suffix -иц- is not di­minutive but rather affectionate, and thus the transformation into "little maid" is semantically wrong.


In general, to translate a Russian fairy tale into English, we should consider the following principles:

-Note the functions of the framing and sacred formulas of time, space and magic symbols.

-Try to construct a semantic and emotional analogue to this or that fairy-tale element when it is a unique national

Phe­nomenon and has no direct counterpart in English.

-Pay careful athention to fairy-tale names and forms of address and reference when they do not coincide with the target culture traditions in order to create a form that retains as much as possible of the source features.

-Mind the rhythmic pattern of the fairy-tale narrative, its components and functions when reconstructing the text in En­glish.


Иллюстративный и раздаточный лекционный материал в разрезе тем дисциплины: словари «Oxford 2006», рефераты по мировой литературе

Список рекомендуемой литературы: Казакова Т.А., Практикум по художественному переводу, С.-Петербург, 2004., Алексеева И.С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. С.- Пб, 2004.


Тема2 ч. Перевод в литературной коммуникации.Авторские метатексты, квазиметатексты, читательские метатексты. Стратегия использования метатекстов. Метакоммуникативный контекст перевода. . Перевод художественной поэзии. Translating Native Siberian Folklore into English. Native Siberian folklore.

If is no easy task to translate folk tales of the peoples of Siberia into English. Siberian folklore traditions differ greatly from those of European tales. For one thing, these tales include many strange names and words that are not present in many English dictionaries. In the tale «Чориль и Чольчинай» the opening formula runs as follows: «Еще тогда, когда нивхов много было, жили на Тромифе-острове Чориль из рода Тахта и Чольчинай из рода Чилъби. » То translate it, we should find an English substitute for the nationality — нивхи; since it does not appear in a dictionary, it may be transliterated as Nivkh (i) or Nywkh. More complicated is the case of Tpoмиф if it is transliterated as Tromf or Tromyph, this produces a non-geo­graphical term, for no such island exists on the map; the reader may take it for a fairy-tale, imaginary place. But, this is the Nivkh word for Sakhalin, a proper geographical term, and a real island off the Far East coast of Russia. Probably, the method that would allow us to avoid unnecessary comments is parallel naming: "on the Tromif—Sakhalin — Island"

There are also other names and images in Siberian folk­lore; such supernatural beings as Морской Старик, Соболиный Хозяин, Боко (Болотный дух), Какзаму-Горный человек, and others. Variants are possible; for example, Соболиный Хозяин may become Chief Sable, or Sable Spirit, or Sable Man or Great Sable. Anyhow, the chosen substitute must match the context, its style and rhythm, as well as the other names and formulas.

To translate Siberian folklore texts means first of all to learn some basic ideas about their cultural peculiarities. In a Siberian folk tale it is important to distinguish the following poetic fea­tures:

1) Its archaic nature;

2) Special names and allusions to places and rites;

3) The colloquial style of the narration.

The archaic roots of the Siberian folklore can be traced in many images and illogical formulas that prove the shamanist and animist nature of the fairy-tale picture of the world. In some tales ancient mythical images appear, such as the celestial brother and sister, cultural heroes, who ride a fair red horse and live in a silver abode close to the sky. Such stories may include many anachro­nisms like guns, paper, tobacco or iron, but their core is the myth of the sun and moon siblings.

Many of the stories deal with animal transformations, when a girl is transformed into a hare, or a boy becomes a bear. Some­times strange motifs appear; such as желтая собака. The word желтая does not simply mean "yellow"; it definitely has a strong symbolic power, as yellow is one of the sacred colours in Siberi­an folklore, and refers to the spirits of earth or, sometimes, of the sun. Anyhow, when any yellow characteristic is present in the text, it introduces there the idea of a mythical hero or rite. A yel­low dog may be a guardian of the sun spirit; but it also may be a sign of a fiery revenge on those who break the law; or it may appear as a shape-shifter, a guide to some sacred place, etc. The colour may be represented by many variants as copper, golden or brimstone — yet they will all be yellow in respect of the functions mentioned above, In translation such a feature is not easy to save, because the association between the yellow colour and its magic and mythical functions is not easily recognised by Europe­an folklore traditions, and the text in translation may seem more illogical than it really is. So in some cases it may be necessary to add either the word "yellow" to some golden or copper coloured objects, or to expand the "yellow" epithet with some additional component, for example, "a yellow

(Magic) dog."

Special names and allusions in Siberian folk tales may be also a problem for translation. When a shaman says, «Я был за большим хребтом Сумбер, » there is no point in looking for such a ridge on a map for «Сумбер» exists only as a magic boundary between the middle and upper worlds in Tuvin folklore.

A tale may begin with the naming of a personage and place, like this: «Давным-давно жила на свете девушка Хонхинур. Она жила на берегу золотого озера, на местности кочковатой». The italicised words are very important symbols and should be taken as allusions to a sacred nature of the place and personage. If we translate it straight, this allusive mythical flavour may disappear: "Once upon a time there lived a girl on the tussocky shore of a golden lake. Her name was Khonkhinur." Such a story may be about any girl and any place, while the read­er should recognise a fairy creature in this initial formula. To pro­vide such recognition, we should transform the names and some features: "Once there was a maiden called Khonkhinur, Jingle Bell. Her abode was on a tussocky shore of a mysterious golden lake." Such a formula will give much more information to the English reader; maiden instead of girl, was instead of lived, and the inclusion of the extra word mysterious joints to the magic nature of both the girl and the lake.

The narrative style of a Siberian folk tale is usually quite colloquial. It is recognisable by such syntactic features as the or­der of words, omitted personal pronouns, partitions, many ellip­tic and exclamatory sentences, phraseological units, etc. Let us consider the beginning of a story:

«В одной деревне три брата жили — Халба, Адунга и Покчо. Два брата охотничий промысел любили, на охоту хо­дили. Ловушки для зверей делать умели. Стрелой белке на лету в глаз попадали. А младший за старших хоронился. Бра­тья на охоту — соболевать. Покчо — за ними. Братья шалаш сделают, огонь разведут. Таежному Хозяину поклонятся, чтобы удача была, — и в тайгу. Покчо в шалаше сидит, кашу иприт, звезды на небе считает, думает: «Вот бы мне столько соболей!»

The rhythm of the narrative in Russian is based on a ski measure, with the stress load stronger to the end of a sentence, translated into regular English; the folk melody will be not there:

"In a village there lived three brothers, Khalba, Adunga and Pokcho. The two elder brothers were true hunters and went hunting very often. They were skilful in making traps and snares and would shoot a squirrel in his eye.

The youngest preferred keep behind them. When the two went sable hunting, Pokcho would follow them. The two hunters would make a cabin т light a fire. They would not forget to pray to the Master oft Forest for luck before going to the taiga. And Pokcho would я in the cabin cooking and counting stars in the sky, thinking, What if I had as much sable!' "

The text in translation becomes smoother, more regal and its rhythmic pattern changes considerably. The only features that show the text to be a piece of exotic folklore are the mm and such realia as "taiga." Thus the emotive value of the text is somewhat reduced. The use of the techniques of partitioning and emphasis is probably useful in such cases. Then the text may air the following form in English:

"In a village there were three brothers called Khalba, Adunga and Pokcho. The two elder brothers loved hunting, and hunting did they go. Ever so skilful in trapping and snaring. In shooting a squirrel right in his eye. The youngest brother hid himself behind them. They went sable hunting — he would go behind them. The two would make a cabin and light a fire. Would pray to the Taiga Man for luck. Then they would enter the Taiga. Pokcho would stay in the cabin, cooking and counting stars in the sq thinking, 'If only I had that amount of the sable!''

The text has become shorter and more expressive, probably more emotive due to the tension caused by the shortened sentences and emphatic structures.


Иллюстративный и раздаточный лекционный материал в разрезе тем дисциплины: словари «Oxford 2006», рефераты по мировой литературе

Список рекомендуемой литературы: Казакова Т.А., Практикум по художественному переводу, С.-Петербург, 2004., Алексеева И.С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. С.- Пб, 2004.


Согласно поведению в магнитном поле все магнитные материалы делятся на две основные группы – магнитно-мягкие (МММ) и магнитно-твердые (МТМ). МММ характеризуются большими значениями начальной и максимальной магнитной проницаемостью и малыми значениями коэрцитивной силы (меньше 4000 А/м). Они легко намагничиваются и размагничиваются, отличаются малыми потерями на гистерезис.

Чем чище МММ, тем лучше его магнитные характеристики.

МТМ обладают большой коэрцитивной силой (больше 4000А/м) и остаточной индукцией (больше 0.1 Тл). Они с большим трудом намагничиваются, но зато могут долго сохранять магнитную энергию, т.е. служить источниками постоянного магнитного поля.

По составу все магнитные материалы делятся на

1. металлические

2. неметаллические

3. магнитодиэлектрики.

Металлические магнитные материалы это чистые металлы (железо, кобальт, никель) и магнитные сплавы некоторых металлов.

Неметаллические магнитные материалы – ферриты, получаемые из порошкообразной смеси окислов железа и окислов других металлов. Опрессованные ферритовые изделия подвергаются отжигу, в результате чего они превращаются в твердые монолитные детали.

Магнитодиэлектрики представляют собой композиционные материалы, состоящие из 60-80% порошкообразного магнитного материала и 40-20% диэлектрика.

Ферриты и магнитодиэлектрики отличаются от металлических магнитных материалов большими ρ(102-108 Ом·м), от чего потери на вихревые токи малы. Это позволяет использовать их в высокочастотной технике. Кроме того, ферриты обладают большой стабильностью магнитных параметров в широком диапазоне частот (включая СВЧ).



Основными магнитно-мягкими материалами, применяемыми в радиоэлектронной аппаратуре, являются карбонильное железо, пермаллои, альсиферы и низкоуглеродистые кремнистые стали.


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