:


-(3434)-(809)-(7483)-(1457) -(14632) -(1363)-(913)-(1438)-(451)-(1065)-(47672) -(912)-(14524) -(4268)-(17799)-(1338)-(13644)-(11121)-(55)-(373)-(8427)-(374)-(1642)-(23702)-(16968)-(1700)-(12668)-(24684)-(15423)-(506)-(11852) -(3308)-(5571)-(1312)-(7869)-(5454)-(1369)-(2801)-(97182)-(8706)-(18388)-(3217)-(10668) -(299)-(6455)-(42831)-(4793)-(5050)-(2929)-(1568)-(3942)-(17015)-(26596)-(22929)-(12095)-(9961)-(8441)-(4623)-(12629)-(1492) -(1748)

ŭŭ





OSI (. 1). , , . TCP/IP IPX/SPX, , .

:

IP- ;

IP- ;

(TCP, UDP, ICMP);

;

.

, , . , Internet:

1. Web ftp, telnet, NNTP . .;

2. , A HTTP B ftp; , Z C TCP UDP, ICMP.

1. .

, - . , Cisco, Bay Networks ( Nortel) , . , - . , UNIX, Windows NT, NetWare, VMS, MVS.

, .

, , . . , Internet. Z (IP- 123.​45.​67.​89) A (IP- 211.​111.​111.​111), telnet. :



1. , : IP- 123.​45.​67.​89, IP- 211.​111.​111.​111, TCP, 6000, 23;

2. , : IP- 211.​111.​111.​111, IP- 123.​45.​67.​89, TCP, 23, 6000.

, (); (, ftp) . , . , IP-.

, .

( , Novell FILTCFG.​NLM) , (stateful), IP-, .

, , . , , , , . , . : , ftp. , , ftp . , Z, . , , ( IP-). . , , .

. (, , ) IP-. IP- (IP-spoofing) . , , . , .

, , . SYN-flooding (. SYN-flooding), , , .

( ) , , . , . , OSI. ( ). , OSI, .

 





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