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I. Read and translate the text. IX. Write down sentences with the following idioms

IX. Write down sentences with the following idioms.

VIII.Write down the forms of the irregular verbs.

To teach, to spend, to run, to put, to mean, to lend, to keep, to hold, to go, to find.


1. Lay cards on the table - Открыть карты

2. Earn one's crust - Зарабатывать на кусок хлеба





There are three principal types of wholesalers used by manufacturers to distribute their products to retailers or industrial users. These are the merchant wholesaler, the manufacturer’s sales branch, and the agent or broker. In deciding which distribution system is best for their products, manufacturers analyze the alternatives in the light of the services to be provided and the target market they wish to reach.

Merchant wholesalers perform several important functions for manufacturers. They purchase merchandise from manufacturers, take title to the goods, and assume the risks associated with selling them. The merchant wholesaler stores the product, delivers it to retail or industrial customers, handles the collection of accounts, and may provide service facilities and sales promotion.

Jobbers, drop shippers and cash-and-carry wholesalers are the wholesalers that normally take title to goods as they move through the channel of distribution. However, these wholesalers usually do not provide all the services made available by the merchant wholesaler.

A manufacturer’s sales branch or office may be desirable if the product is complicated and requires considerable technical knowledge. Sales branches are owned and operated by manufacturers separate from their factories. They may or may not carry inventories from which orders are shipped directly. The sales branch enables the manufacturer to control the selection of retail or industrial customers. When sales branches are used, the manufacturer performs the wholesale functions of storage, shipping, credit financing, and servicing.

Agents and brokers make up a third class of wholesalers. They usually do not take title to goods but negotiate the purchase or sale of merchandise. For this service they are paid a fee or commission. They may represent specialized product lines, as in the case of processed foods brokers or building supplies manufacturer’s agents. Customarily the agent or broker is in close communication with potential customers and is able to provide information on the demand for goods at any time. This permits the manufacturer to avoid the expense of a sales force. A large area can be covered by a network of independent sales agents.


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