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I. Read and translate the text. IX. Write down sentences with the following idioms




IX. Write down sentences with the following idioms.

VIII.Write down the forms of the irregular verbs.

VII. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Complex Subject.

1. Товары, вероятно, будут доставлены без опоздания.

2. Маловероятно, что пароход уже вышел из порта.

3. Он, наверное, согласиться принять участие в работе.

4. Полагают, что цены на эту продукцию будут увеличены.

5. Вероятно, этот вопрос будет обсужден на встрече сегодня.

6. Эта задача оказалась очень трудной.

7. Известно, что этот завод производит трубы.

8. Кажется, директор хорошо знает английский язык.

( to be likely, to be unlikely, to be certain, to prove, to be known, to seem, to be considered, to happen)

 

To withdraw, to tell, to spread, to see, to feed, to draw, to choose, to build, to begin, to grow.

1. Plug-and-play (employee or device) - о сотруднике, который сразу может приступить к работе, поскольку ему не требуется дополнительное обучение; в технической сфере об устройстве, которое готово к работе, поскольку не требует дополнительной настройки

 

2. The same knife cuts bread and fingers. У каждой медали есть оборотная сторона. Сколько голов, столько умов. Каждый смотрит со своей колокольни.

 

UNIT 8

 

DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS

 

 

There are four main ways in which distribution is done:

1. Direct sales: products are sold directly from the producer to the consumer. This is the common method of sales for capital goods of high value or machine tools, cosmetics, footwear, and many services such as insurance.

2. Through a third party: the supplier uses an agent to channel his goods. This is a common method of sales for washing-machines, and refrigerators where the manufacturer opens special shops to act as agents. Insurance is often sold through agents such as banks and through brokers.

3. The distribution chain: it usually consists of the producer, wholesaler, retailer and consumer. Food and household necessities are sold this way.

4. Retail mail order: it takes two forms:

a) Contact is made with the customer by display advertisements in the press and magazines.

b) The retailer sells through the mail. There are two main methods: the first uses advertisements in the press and magazines and the second uses catalogues.

The method of distribution chosen will depend upon the type of market, the type of goods or services offered, the tradition also. Many producers use more than one method.

Many manufacturers distribute their products through their own sales personnel to wholesalers, who in turn sell these products to retailers, who then make the sale to the final consumers. In their normal course of business many manufacturers have little direct contact with the retailers of their products.



Thus the marketing managers in such firms are separated from their final consumers by geographical distance as well as by a number of layers of people within their own organizations and within their wholesalers’ and retailers’ organizations.

Although retailers and service organizations have direct contact with their customers, managers of retail operations often have little knowledge of their customers’ attitudes, opinions, and preferences because sales clerks and other store personnel do not relay customers’ comments to their managers. A retailer also has no contact with potential customers, who might become customers if the retailer could identify them and learn what would be effective in attracting them.

Manufacturers, retailers, and suppliers of all kind of services need certain kinds of information in order to be able to satisfy their customers’ wants and needs and to design effective marketing programs while still earning a profit.

 





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