Студопедия

КАТЕГОРИИ:


Архитектура-(3434)Астрономия-(809)Биология-(7483)Биотехнологии-(1457)Военное дело-(14632)Высокие технологии-(1363)География-(913)Геология-(1438)Государство-(451)Демография-(1065)Дом-(47672)Журналистика и СМИ-(912)Изобретательство-(14524)Иностранные языки-(4268)Информатика-(17799)Искусство-(1338)История-(13644)Компьютеры-(11121)Косметика-(55)Кулинария-(373)Культура-(8427)Лингвистика-(374)Литература-(1642)Маркетинг-(23702)Математика-(16968)Машиностроение-(1700)Медицина-(12668)Менеджмент-(24684)Механика-(15423)Науковедение-(506)Образование-(11852)Охрана труда-(3308)Педагогика-(5571)Полиграфия-(1312)Политика-(7869)Право-(5454)Приборостроение-(1369)Программирование-(2801)Производство-(97182)Промышленность-(8706)Психология-(18388)Религия-(3217)Связь-(10668)Сельское хозяйство-(299)Социология-(6455)Спорт-(42831)Строительство-(4793)Торговля-(5050)Транспорт-(2929)Туризм-(1568)Физика-(3942)Философия-(17015)Финансы-(26596)Химия-(22929)Экология-(12095)Экономика-(9961)Электроника-(8441)Электротехника-(4623)Энергетика-(12629)Юриспруденция-(1492)Ядерная техника-(1748)

ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО ПРАВА 2 страница




II. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:

direct – direction
visual – visually – visibility
observe – observation – observer
equip – equipment
transmit – transmission – transmitter
regular – regularity
depend – dependence – dependent – independent
provide – provision
accurate – accurately – accuracy – inaccurate
rely – reliable – reliability – unreliable

III. Найдите в тексте эквивалент следующим словосочетаниям:

сводки погоды, погодные условия, давление воздуха, скорость ветра, направление ветра, нижняя граница облачности, прогноз погоды, центр прогнозирования погоды, прогностические карты, станция обеспечения полета, погода аэродрома посадки

IV. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Погода состоит из таких элементов как температура и влажность воздуха, атмосферное давление, скорость и направление ветра, видимость.
2. Дождь, гроза, туман, шторм и другие явления опасны для полета.
3. Перед полетом пилот идет в метеобюро, чтобы получить сводку погоды и прогноз не только по своему маршруту, но и в пункте назначения.
4. В каждом аэропорту есть метеостанция со специальными приборами, регистрирующими все изменения в атмосфере.
5. Имея все данные о погоде, синоптики составляют погодную карту.
6. Во многих аэропортах информация о погоде непрерывно транслируется на определенной частоте.
7. Посадка самолета – самая трудная операция.
8. Стандарты видимости для посадки выше, чем для любой другой фазы полета.
9. Сейчас большинство метеостанций почти полностью автоматизированы.
10. Автоматическая система погоды показывает скорость и направление ветра, температуру воздуха, точку росы, дальность видимости на полосе, высоту облачности.
11. Прогноз погоды, полученный со спутников, делает его точнее.
12. Использование спутников и компьютеров повышает точность прогноза погоды.

AIRPORT
There are airports in every country.
In theory, an aircraft can fly an infinite number of paths through the air from any surface point to any other. In practice, paths of flight lead from airport to airport. Aircraft not only need proper landing and take off facilities. Moreover, those who use aircraft need services and accommodations which the airport must provide.
In the early days of aviation when aeroplanes were small a cow pasture could be used as a "flying field". But with the continuous increase of air traffic and the introduction of high-capacity aircraft it became necessary to expand airport facilities, to build new terminal buildings and to construct new airports.
In the interest of aviation safety and air traffic assistance and control air traffic rules were established. The rules relate chiefly to weather minima, flight altitudes and traffic patterns which are to be used under different circumstances. Much can be learned about the nature of a specific airport from aeronautical charts which pilots use. For example, the chart reveals the type and size of an airport, the radio facilities it uses and its altitude and location.
The modern airport is a complex structure, a centre of most diversified services. Millions of passengers and thousands of tons of airfreight are handled by modern airports. Thousands of people are working at airports.
In practical any airport can be divided into two main parts: the landing area (runways and taxiways) and the terminal area (aprons, buildings, car parking areas, hangars, etc.). There is also a third part - terminal air traffic control. The landing area includes runways and taxiways. The number of runways, their length and location depend on the volume and character of traffic, the prevailing wind direction and other factors.
The runways and taxiways should be arranged so that to prevent delays on landing, taxying and take off operations.
Aprons are required for aircraft to make final checks prior to departure.
The main function of the terminal buildings is to handle the departing and arriving passengers and their baggage.
Among the airport services are: flight assistance service, air traffic control services - airport traffic control, approach control, air route traffic control, radio communications and weather observation and forecasting service.
At every airport there is a number of supplementary services such as rescue and security services, an airport clinic, a fire brigade, special vehicles and equipment units (water trucks, tow tractors, etc.).
Other services include maintenance, overhaul and repair of stationary and mobile equipment, the supply of electricity, water, heat and air conditioning.
The facilities include runways, air navigational aids, passenger and cargo terminals. The airport has a hotel, a post office, bank offices, restaurants, car rental firms, etc. In the terminal there is everything for quick passenger handling: check-in desks, electronic flight information board of departure and arrival times, the baggage claim carousel and many others.
Nowadays there exists one more pressing problem - that of air piracy. The number of acts of unlawful interference resulted in deaths and injures of some hundreds of persons. So the ICAO Council has adopted Amendment 8 to Annex 17 (Security). The Amendment covers security screening and inspecting passengers, checked baggage, security control over cargo, courier and express parcels and mail. Every airport has new specific detection systems capable to screen airline passengers and their baggage within less than 8 seconds.



EXERCISES

I. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. Why was it necessary to build new terminal buildings and construct new airports?
2. Why were air traffic rules established?
3. What do these rules relate to?
4. What does the aeronautical chart reveal?
5. What are the main two parts of the airport?
6. What is the third part of the airport?
7. What factors influence the number of runways, their length and location?
8. What does the aircraft crew do on the apron?
9. What is the main function of the terminal building?
10. What airport services do you know ?
11. What supplementary services are there at the airport?
12. What does the electronic information board indicate?
13. What equipment is used at the airport for preventing piracy?
14. How many airports are there in Petersburg?
15. What is the distance between the center of the city and Pulkovo-1?
16. How can you get to the airport?
17. Is there an airport in your native city?
18. Isitaninternationalordomestic ?

II. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:

continue – continuation – continuous – continuously
introduce – introduction – introductory
necessary – necessity – necessitate
divide – division – divider
depend – dependent – dependence
prevent – prevention – preventive
detect – detection – detective – detector
depart – departure
arrive –arrival

III. Найдите в тексте эквивалент следующим словосочетаниям:

средства посадки и взлета, правила управления воздушным движением, схема движения, радиосредства, зона посадки, преобладающее направления ветра, службы аэропорта, контроль подхода, наблюдение за погодой, служба поиска и спасания, обслуживание пассажиров, грузовой терминал.

IV. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Почти в каждом городе есть аэропорт, большой или маленький.
2. Размер аэропорта зависит от объема перевозимых пассажиров и груза.
3. Современные аэропорты обслуживают миллионы пассажиров и перевозят огромное количество груза.
4. С увеличением воздушного транспорта и с введением новых современных самолетов старые аэропорты расширяются и реконструируются.
5. Для обеспечения безопасности полетов существуют правила воздушного движения.
6. Прибывающие и убывающие пассажиры обслуживаются в здании аэровокзала.
7. Число ВПП зависит от объема перевозок.
8. Расположение ВПП зависит от превалирующих направлениях ветра.
9. Пилот пользуется аэронавигационными картами.
10. Эти карты указывают тип и размер аэропорта, его радиосредства, длину и расположение ВПП и т.д.

AIRCRAFT

During those years which have passed since the first aeroplane was built, aviation has enjoyed phenomenal progress. At present aviation influences many aspects of social life.
In the dynamic world of today, aviation provides a rapid transportation link between different population centres. In many places the aeroplane is the only known vehicle for the large-scale movement of passengers and freight over large distances. The airplane has made it possible to patrol the forests, to fight their fires, to assess their timber resources and to plan their harvesting. It has made an enormous contribution to the photographing and mapping of the vast territories, to exploring and prospecting for mineral wealth and to studying and assessing the water resources.
As for the helicopter, besides its use for passenger transportation, this type of aircraft has proved its value in special applications where vertical take off-landing are required. Helicopters are widely used in search and rescue operations in emergency situations or when some accident occurs.
The main components of airplanes are as follows:
1. The fuselage is the main body of the airplane and contains the pilot's compartment (cockpit) and passenger and baggage compartments. The cockpit contains the flight controls and instruments.
2. The wings are the main lifting surfaces which support the aircraft in flight. Aircraft may be divided into monoplanes and biplanes.
3. The tail unit or empennage consists of a vertical stabilizer and rudder and the horizontal stabilizer and elevators to provide the necessary stability in flight.
4. The three basic flight control surfaces are the ailerons, the elevators and the rudder.
5. The power plant is the heart of the airplane. There are many types of engines: turboprop, turbojet, turbofan, rocket engines, etc.
6. The landing gear or undercarriage is used during manoeuvering of the aircraft on the ground while taxying, taking off and landing. In flight the retractable landing gear is retracted into the wing or the fuselage structure.
AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS
Aircraft instruments are basically devices for obtaining information about the aircraft and its environment and for presenting that information to the pilot. Their purpose is to detect, measure, record, process and analise the variables encountered in flying an aircraft. They are mainly electrical, electronic or gyroscopic. Modern aircraft have a computer on board. They are concerned with the behavior of the engines, the speed, height and attitude of the aircraft and its whereabouts. Instruments concerned with the whereabouts of an aircraft are navigation instruments.
An aircraft usually takes the name of the designer or manufacturer. Here are some of the Russian designers: Tupolev, Ilyushin, Antonov, Yakovlev. Manufacturer's names are represented by Boeing, Douglas, Lockheed and others. The name of the designer or manufacturer is followed by a type code, known in some airlines as a class. For example: Ilyushin-96 (designer's name and type code), Boeing-747 (manufacturer's name and type code).
EXERCISES

I. Ответьтенавопросы:
1. What does aviation provide?
2. Where are helicopters used?
3. What types of aircraft do you know?
4. Name the main parts of the aircraft.
5. What does the fuselage contain?
6. What for are the wings required?
7. What are the components of the wing?
8. What does the tail unit provide?
9. What is the power plant?
10. What types of engines do you know?
11. When are the landing gears used?
12. What is the purpose of aircraft instruments?
13. What Russian and foreign designers do you know?
14. What name does the aircraft take?

II. Переведитеслова, обращаявниманиенасловообразующиеэлементы:
transport – transportation
move – movement – movable
possible – possibility – impossible
apply - application
power – powerful
retract – retraction – retractable - unretractable
require – requirement
provide – provision
measure – measurement
contribute – contribution

III. Найдите в тексте эквивалент следующим словосочетаниям:

населенный центр, минеральные и водные ресурсы, применение авиации, перевозка пассажиров, пассажирское и грузовое отделения, приборы самолета, навигационные приборы, рули управления самолетом, пилотская кабина, конструкция фюзеляжа, аварийная ситуация, поисково-спасательные операции.

IV. Переведите на английский язык:
1. Огромный прогресс сделан в авиации за последнее десятилетие.
2. Авиация применяется во многих аспектах общественной жизни.
3. Авиация обеспечивает быструю перевозку пассажиров и груза из одной точки в другую.
4. В некоторых местах авиация является единственным средством перевозки.
5. Вертолет удобное средство передвижения благодаря вертикальному взлету и посадки.
6. Фюзеляж является основной частью самолета.
7. Несущими поверхностями самолета являются крылья.
8. Крылья и хвостовое оперение состоят из подвижных частей, таких как руль высоты, руль поворота, руль направления, стабилизатор, элерон.
9. Шасси используются при рулении на земле и убираются в крыло после взлета.
10. В кабине пилота много приборов, показывающих скорость и высоту полета, работу двигателя и другую информацию.
11. Современныесамолетыимеютнабортукомпьютер.

SAFETY

Safety is the most important problem in aviation. The prevention of collisions between aircraft in the air and on the ground is the main task of aviation specialists.
The achievement of aviation safety is the result of progress in many sciences and disciplines including engineering, aerodynamics, meteorology, psychology, medicine and economics.
Safety is ensured by thousands of ICAO and governmental regulations, by high standards in the design and manufacture of an aircraft and by rigid (strict) procedures of airline safety practices.
The aviation industry is constantly taking steps to prevent accidents but the crashes do occur time after time. They result from different causes: failure in the aircraft structure, human errors, navigational failures, malfunctioning of airborne and ground aids, hazardous weather conditions and so on.

Poor knowledge of English can also contribute to or result in an accident or incident. Therefore ICAO revised the provisions related to the use of the language for radiotelephony communications and demands good discipline to follow more closely to standard phraseology in all air-ground exchanges.
Experience has shown that phraseology alone is not sufficient to cover all of the potential situations, particularly in critical or emergency situations. That’s why proficiency in common or plain language is also of great importance.
One of ICAO’s chief activities is standardization in all spheres of aviation operations. The main ICAO document is SARPS (International Standards and Recommended Practices). Its main task is to provide the necessary level of standardization for safe and regular air operations.

EXERCISES

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is the most important problem in aviation?
2. What is the main task of aviation specialists?
3. By what means is safety ensured?
4. What factors may cause accidents?
5. What can you say about the role of language in the problem of safety?
6. Can radiotelephony alone cover all of the potential situations?
7. What is the main document ICAO?
8. Whatisthemaintaskof SARPS?

II. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:

terror – terrible – terribly – terrific
danger – dangerous – dangerously
care – careful – careless – carelessness
safe – safety – unsafe
prevent – preventive – prevention
collide – collision
special – specially – specialist – speciality – specialize – specialization
achieve – achievement
ensure – insurance
govern – governor – government – governmental
regular – regularly –regulation – regularity – irregular
differ – different – differently –difference
fail – failure
navigate – navigator – navigation – navigational
hazard – hazardous
know – knowledge – unknown
provide – provision – provider
relate – relation – relative – relatively – relativity
communicate – communication – communicative – community
sufficient – sufficiently – sufficiency – insufficient
proficient – proficiently – proficiency
necessary – necessarily – necessity – unnecessary
critical – critically – criticize – criticism – uncritical
close – closely

III. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Самая важная проблема в авиации – безопасность.
2. Для обеспечения безопасности полетов ИКАО установила специальные правила и процедуры.
3. Все государства – члены ИКАО должны строго соблюдать все правила и процедуры, принятые ИКАО.
4. Одна из самых задач авиационных специалистов – предотвращать столкновение самолетов в воздухе и на земле.
5. Достижения в технике, аэродинамике и других науках повышают авиационную безопасность.
6. Еще одним условием, обеспечивающим авиационную безопасность, является стандартизация во всех авиационных операциях.
7. Всем авиационным специалистам очень важно знать английский язык.
8. Хорошее знание английского языка необходимо дляобеспечение безопасности полетов.
9. Причина катастрофы - человеческая ошибка.
10. Самолет не смог вылететь из-за опасных погодных условий.
11. Отказ двигателя привел к катастрофе.
12. В районе аэропорта аварийная ситуация.
13. Одна из главных задач ИКАО – обеспечивать необходимый уровень безопасности.

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL

The ATC’s first concern is safety, that is the prevention of collision between aircraft in the air and orderly flow of traffic.
To perform their exacting duties air traffic controllers need adequate facilities. The introduction of radars greatly assists in expediting the flow of traffic reducing the separation minima. Computers are also a powerful tool. They give assistance by taking over routine tasks but they must not dominate the system. The human controller is much more efficient than any current system because it is he who takes responsibility for controlling aircraft and it is he who takes final decisions in all situations including conflicting and emergency.
During periods of heavy traffic controllers work under high stress. They may control several aircraft simultaneously, their number sometimes exceeding 15 and even more. Controllers’ slightest error may cause loss of human lives and property.
Top physical and mental condition is a vital requirement for ATC controllers. Therefore they undergo strict medical examination which are repeated at periodic intervals.
The problem of the selection and training of ATC personnel is extremely important. The controllers should possess a number of qualities which are absolutely necessary for them: a high degree of morality, a very good nervous and emotional balance, a sound critical judgment, a readiness for decisions and an instinct for team work. To become a highly professional controller one must be proficient not only in specialized aviation English but also in plain language because aviation safety depends on accurate pilot – controller communications.
The training of ATC personnel is carried out by different methods using various teaching aids, systems and simulators. Modern simulators can reproduce the whole ATC task from take-off to landing including all manoeuvers even the dangerous ones.

EXERCISES

I. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. What is the main task of ATC activity?
2. How can controllers expedite the flow of traffic?
3. What aids and systems do controller use to control air traffic?
4. Can any aids or systems substitute a human controller? If not, then why?
5. What are the working conditions of controllers?
6. How many aircraft may controllers control at peak traffic periods?
7. What is one of the vital requirements for ATC controllers?
8. How often do they undergo medical examinations?
9. What qualities should a person possess to become a controller?
10. What can you say about the role of the English language in controller’s work?
11. How are controllers trained?
12. Can modern simulators reproduce conflicting and emergency situations?

II. Переведитеслова, обращаявниманиенасловообразовательныеэлементы:
prevent – prevention – preventive
provide – provision – provider – provisional
order – orderly
perform – performance
exact – exactly – exactness
introduce – introduction – introductory
reduce – reduction
power – powerful – powerless
efficient – efficiently – efficiency
responsible – responsibility – response – respond
decide – decision – decisive
strict – strictly – strictness
necessary – unnecessary – necessity
depend – dependent – dependence – independent
train – trainer – trainee – training
carry – carrier – carriage
differ – different – indifferent – differently
simulate – simulator – simulation

III. Переведите на английский язык:
1. Существует много технических средств, помогающих диспетчерам в их работе.
2. Главным элементом в системе УВД является диспетчер, т.к. он принимает окончательное решение в любой ситуации.
3. Так как работа диспетчера очень ответственна необходим строгий отбор и подготовка персонала УВД.
4. Диспетчер должен иметь хорошее физическое здоровье умение принимать решение и работать в команде.
5. Различные тренировочные средства, системы и специальные тренажеры используются для подготовки персонала УВД.
6. Современные тренажеры позволяют имитировать все этапы полета, включая аварийные ситуации.
7. 15 или даже больше самолетов находятся под контролем диспетчера в период интенсивного движения.
8. Электронные средства не могут заменить диспетчера. Они могут только помогать ему.
9. Диспетчер не должен допускать ошибок, так как это может привести к потере человеческих жизней.
10. Минимумы эшелонирования будут уменьшены в ближайшем будущем.
11. Какой европейский центр подготавливает диспетчерский персонал?
12. Этот тренажер не может воспроизводить аварийные ситуации.

HUMAN FACTORS IN AVIATION

Human factors is a critical aspect of aviation safety, one that ICAO began to address more than a decade ago.
ICAO convened the first in a series of global symposia on flight safety and human factors in 1990. From the beginning, when the first event was held in a city known then as Leningrad, there was a conviction that international aviation could make enormous progress in improving safety through the application of human factors knowledge.
The first symposium was a turning point and the stage for following meetings in the United States in 1993, in New Zealand in 1996 and, finally in Chile in 1999. There have been encouraging developments since 1990, but we still have challenges to pursue: after the Leningrad symposium, human error remains a significant safety concern.
The purpose of the worldwide symposia and 10 regional seminars which were held in the past decade was to increase the awareness of States, industry and organizations in all ICAO regions about the importance of human factors. The ongoing implementation of the ICAO communication, navigation, surveillance and air traffic management (CNS/ATM) systems concept has introduced new challenges, and also new possibilities for human factors. The reason the community must respond to is, of course, to ensure that civil aviation continues to achieve its ultimate goal: the safe and efficient transportation of passengers and goods.
The ICAO flight safety and human factors programme is safety–oriented and operationally relevant. Moreover, it is practical since it must deal with real problems in a real world. Through the programme, ICAO has provided the aviation community with the means and tools to anticipate human error and contain its negative consequences in the operational environment. Furthermore, ICAO’s efforts are aimed at the system – not the individual.
The global aviation safety plan (GASP) was developed by the ICAO Air Navigation Commission in 1997 and subsequently approved by the ICAO Council and endorsed by the ICAO Assembly. GASP was designed to coordinate and provide a common direction to the efforts of States and the aviation industry to the extent possible in safety matters. It is a tool that allows ICAO to focus resources and set priorities giving emphasis to those activities that will contribute the most to enhancing safety. Therefore the flight safety and human factors programme is among the six major activities that comprise the plan.

EXERCISES

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. When did ICAO begin to address to the aspect of human factors?
2. When and where was the first symposium on flight safety held?
3. What can improve aviation safety?
4. How many symposia on flight safety were held by ICAO?
5. What was the purpose of the symposia and seminars?
6. Where can the knowledge of human factors be applied?
7. What is the ultimate goal of civil aviation?
8. What is the ICAO flight safety and human factors programme?
9. What for was the global aviation safety plan developed?
10. Why is the flight safety and human factors programme so important?

II. Переведитеслова, обращаявниманиенасловообразующиеэлементы:
safe – safety – safely – unsafe
navigate – navigation – navigator – navigable – navigability
operate – operation – operative – operator – operational - operationally
industry – industrial – industrious - industrialist – industrialization
communicate – communication – communicative – communicable – communicator
progress – progressive – progression – progressionist
improve – improvement – improvable – improver
organize - organization – organizer - disorganization
efficient – efficiency – inefficient – efficiently – inefficiency

III. Найдите в тексте эквивалент следующим словосочетаниям:

знание человеческого фактора; важное дело для безопасности; идея систем связи, навигации, обзора и управления воздушным пространством и воздушным движением; программа ИКАО по безопасности полетов и человеческому фактору; план по авиационной безопасности в мировом масштабе; комиссия ИКАО по воздушной навигации; вопросы безопасности.

IV. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Человеческий фактор является одним из важнейших аспектов авиационной безопасности.
2. В течение последнего десятилетия ИКАО провела несколько симпозиумов и семинаров, связанных с человеческим фактором в авиации.
3. Знание человеческого фактора может значительно повысить безопасность полетов.
4. Для повышения безопасности новые системы связи, навигации и обзора постоянно широко внедряются.
5. Совершенствование управления воздушным движением будет продолжаться.
6. Программа по безопасности полетов и человеческому фактору является инструментом, который позволяет предупреждать человеческие ошибки при выполнении полетов.
7. Вопросы безопасности в авиации и человеческий фактор являются самыми важными в плане авиационной безопасности в мировом масштабе.

LANGUAGE PROBLEMS IN AVIATION

Nowadays many people of different tongues are using aeroplanes everywhere. And this is the language problem for an airport, airspace user and navigation personnel.
It is known that the working languages of ICAO are those of English, French, Spanish and Russian. But it is known as well that many aviation specialists in the world are very limited in the knowledge of one of these languages or even do not undergo sufficient training in English to master radio communication. This results in some problems facing both pilots and controllers, namely: accent, mispronunciation, inaccurate grammar, speed of delivery, the persistent use of non-standard radio-telephony (RT) phraseology and some others.
A prerequisite to becoming a controller or a pilot should be a high standard of spoken English. A non-native speaker monitoring another speaking English over the RT may be confused by inaccurate grammar or pronunciation.
Speed of delivery is another frequently head complaint, especially about aerodrome terminal information services (ATIS) and meteorological broadcasts to aircraft in flight (VOLMET).
It is not less important to speak without pauses and stumbles over words. The best recommendation is the rate of 100-120 words per minute.
Another difficulty is that of accent which is not easily rectified. This problem is connected with the peculiarities of pronunciation. For example, there exist peculiarities in pronunciation inherent in certain geographical regions in the South Pacific.
The ICAO RT phraseology has been designed to limit each instruction to the minimum number of words. It is for this reason that a controller does not want to waste time listening to extraneous language, particularly at busy times when the traffic flow is heavy.
It sometimes happens that the user may be able to speak the limited number of phrases quite well and may react to them correctly. But it does not mean that he is really speaking the language. He is treating it as a code without being aware of adequate meaning of the words spoken. This will do in a standard situation, but in an emergency communication is absolutely impossible. It follows that any course of teaching RT phraseology by rote without language teaching is dangerous as the student is unable to cope with emergencies.
These are several recommendations to improve the situation:
1. A high standard of English is essential as a precondition for qualification either a controller or a pilot. Proficiency is required both in speaking and comprehension.
2. In service tuition in English should be mandatory for both controllers and pilots with stress on pronunciation.
3. Radio traffic should be monitored, either regularly or from time to time by a qualified assessor.
4. English speakers should abstain non-standardized chat and especially from developing regional jargon.
5. Language training should take place in the area in which the trainee will be operating, i.e. teachers should go where the trainees will work.
6. ATISs and VOLMETs should be subject to specified word flow rates.
7. On purely logic grounds and without any nationalistic bias English should be made the primary official language for all RT communications relating to air traffic control. This would greatly enhance flight safety.





Дата добавления: 2017-01-14; Просмотров: 24; Нарушение авторских прав?;


Нам важно ваше мнение! Был ли полезен опубликованный материал? Да | Нет



ПОИСК ПО САЙТУ:





studopedia.su - Студопедия (2013 - 2017) год. Не является автором материалов, а предоставляет студентам возможность бесплатного обучения и использования! Последнее добавление ip: 23.20.13.165
Генерация страницы за: 0.016 сек.