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ICAO has some definitions concerning emergency procedures.
Emergency phase.A generic term meaning, as the case may be, uncertainty phase, alert phase or distress phase.
Uncertainty phase.A situation wherein uncertainty exists as to the safety of an aircraft and its occupants.
Alerting phase.A situation wherein apprehension exists as to the safety of an aircraft or its occupants.
Distress phase. A situation wherein there is reasonable certainty that an aircraft and its occupants are threatened by grave and imminent danger or require immediate assistance.
Emergency procedures.
Emergency is a serious event that needs immediate action.
Summarizing aeronautical experience a list of most common reasons for the crew to declare an emergency can be made: mid-air explosion, serious fire in the cabin or engine, oil or door warning lights, loss of an engine, bird strikes, illness on board. However, this list will never be comprehensive and complete. Thus, each emergency must be treated as an event of its own. It may be similar to other emergencies, but there hardly could be two identical in every respect. That is why it is totally impossible to define instructions for all cases and write such a document as phraseology for emergencies. Nevertheless, there are some standard procedures which help to prevent chaos and make controller's work organized and regulated.
An aircraft under emergency gets priority over other aircraft. An aircraft in distress informs ATC using radiotelephony signal MAYDAY, radiotelegraphy signal SOS. The aircraft in distress sets its transponder mode A code 7700.
An aircraft having some difficulties but which does not need immediate assistance can inform about it switching on and off its landing lights or flashing its navigation lights in a way different from the normal one.
An aircraft which has an urgent message concerning people safety, other aircraft or vehicle transmits radiotelegraphy signal XXX or radiotelephony signal PAN.
In some cases it can be difficult to determine into which of the categories a particular incident falls and in other cases it is quite clear. The English used in these events can be confusing and often does not give the information a controller needs to make a reasonable assessment of the situation. The pilot may not be proficient in the use of English outside the standard laid down phraseology. And there are no laid down phraseologies for emergencies. If in doubt as to exact nature of the problem, then ask for clarification. Never forget that one unusual situation can lead to another, and they can overlap.
Inform your supervisor. He will be able to do most of the liaison which will be needed. Do not forget your other traffic. The necessity of transferring all the rest traffic to another frequency may arise. Radio silence may be imposed on all traffic except the flight in emergency.

If the pilot is unsure of the vertical or lateral position of the aircraft or the aircraft deviates from its assigned altitude or track without prior clearance, then the pilot must take action to minimize the potential for collision with aircraft on adjacent routes or flight levels.
In this situation the pilot must alert adjacent aircraft by making maximum use of aircraft lights and broadcasting position, flight level and intentions on 121.5 MHz (or 131.8 as a back up).
The pilot should advise ATC as soon as possible of a situation and if possible request an ATC clearance before deviating from assigned route of the flight or flight level.
If a revised ATC clearance cannot be obtained timely and action is required to avoid potential conflict with other aircraft, then the aircraft should fly at an altitude or on a track where other aircraft are least likely to be encountered.

Since the events of 11 September 2001, the world aviation community has initiated a wide range of measures to increase security. New international security standards and a programme of aviation security audits were adopted by all 188 Contracting States of ICAO.
ICAO Contracting States reinforced security measures and procedures, particularly at airports.
The 33rd Session of its Assembly, which was opened after the September 2001 terrorist attack, initiated immediate action aimed at preventing, combating and eradicating future acts of terror against civil aviation. Annex 17 to the Convention on civil aviation was strengthened and many new standards adopted. In November 2001, The Council convened to consider specific proposals for inclusion in Amendment 10 to Annex 17. These proposals were unanimously agreed and the following issues were adopted in December 2001:
— Applicability of Annex 17 to domestic operations.
— Certification of screeners.
— Access control relating to air crew and airport personnel.
— In-flight security personnel and protection of the cockpit.
— Joint response to acts of unlawful interference.
— Definition of aircraft security check and security restricted area.

The Ministerial Conference, held in February 2002 reviewed and endorsed the ICAO Plan of Action for Strengthening Aviation Security, which was approved by the ICAO Council in June 2002. A major component of the Plan, aviation security audits in all ICAO Contracting States, commenced in October 2002.
The long term component of ICAO’s global aviation security strategy is focused on three critical areas. One is to assess new and emerging threats to aviation security so as to develop an ability to initiate pre-emptive action.
The second is to continually monitor and upgrade existing security process.
And the third is to expedite the clearance of passengers whilst maintaining the highest level of security.
A central element of the ICAO strategy is the Aviation Security Plan of Action which include regular, mandatory and systematic audits to enable evaluation of aviation security in all 187 Member States.

Airport screening was established in the USA in January 1973. The equipment was primitive in comparison with today’s screening tools. Since then the equipment was improved and new technology was developed.
Introduced in 1972 the walk-through metal detector has become a standard screening tool at airports. This equipment has provided high quality detection but it has some disadvantages. The alarm system remains unchanged. Security agent must constantly watch and listen for an alarm to ensure detection. At busy airports there are multiple units resulting in multiple alarms and it is easy for a screener to become confused as to which unit has sounded an alarm. It is not only confusing for the operator but also noisy and confusing for passengers.
Some time later another equipment was offered by manufactures, that is a gate system. If no metal is detected the gate remains open. But if metal is detected the gate operates to divert the passenger to a secondary screening point.
The primary tool for searching hand luggage is the X-ray machine. The system operator must be well-trained to identify not only guns and knives, but improvised explosive devices. Many dangerous items cannot be identified with X-ray technology. This is because basic X-ray images only show shadows. Many dangerous items cannot be identified solely with X-ray equipment. If an operator clearly sees and identifies dangerous item the only way is to open the bags and to conduct a hand search.
Another security equipment, called Explosives Trace Detector (ETD) was installed at some airports. ETD is easier to use than any other screening equipment because all that is required of the operator is to take a sample. The equipment automatically analyzes this sample and notifies the operator when explosive item is detected.
One more equipment for screening checked baggage was installed at many airports. It is the Explosives Detection System (EDS). EDS technology is extremely effective in the detection of the presence of explosives.
The latest security systems such as Machine Readable Travel Documents and biometric identification are being introduced at many airports to prevent civil aviation from becoming a terrorist target and to provide absolute security for air passengers.

The word “aircraft” means any kind of aircraft or vehicle which air can support. Airplanes, helicopters and gliders are heavier–than-air craft. They are supported by the dynamic action of the air upon their aerodynamic surfaces. Free and captive balloons and airship are supported by their own buoyancy*. They are called lighter–than–air craft. Rockets do not need air for support. They use the power of their reaction engine to propel them through space, and are called “spacecraft”.
All heavier-than-air craft use aerodynamic surfaces or airfoils to develop the necessary supporting force. These airfoils* are usually in the form of fixed or rotary wings. In order to develop the required lift, the airfoils must move through the air with sufficiently high speed. This speed is imparted to the aircraft by the thrust of its powerplant. The thrust may be developed by rotating the pulling or pushing propellers, or by throwing back masses of air by means of gas turbine engines.
To change the attitude and direction of flight aircraft use control surfaces or controls. These comprise the rudder, the elevator, and ailerons. The rudder is used to deflect the movement of the aircraft to the left or to the right. The elevator makes the aircraft climb or dive. The ailerons produce rolling movement.
The aircraft must also be able to see and hear. Aircraft sensors are those devices, such as radars, direction finders and position plotters*, communication equipment, attitude gyros, air speed indicators and others, which enable the crew to know position, orientation and speed of aircraft.

* buoyancy – аэростатическая подъемная сила
* airfoil – аэродинамическая поверхность
* positionplotter – прокладчик пути

The professional training system must be based on the criteria of the reliable flight deck activity in piloting and operating the airborne systems.
The main criteria of basic pilot training is timely and faultless procedure execution in anticipated flight conditions and in abnormal situations.
Professional training of flight personnel faces the problem to organize the instruction process so as to provide acquisition of the necessary knowledge only and enable logical execution of a great number of procedures.
The formation of professional intellect is a complex process. The creation of professional intellect cannot be achieved as a result of observations of some phenomena without serious thinking over them. One of the pecularities of professional intellect acquisition is that the trainee should individually study the correlated functioning of aircraft systems in case of failures, the instruments readings and position of the controls.
Special-purpose simulators used at the stage of simulator training contributes to more extensive acquisition and strengthening abilities and skills both as crew members and in teamwork. The phase of so called “pre-simulator” phase starts with the study of airport systems functioning principles and specific nature of their operation in anticipated conditions and abnormal situations. The necessity of special technical aids of instruction for “pre-simulator” training is due to the existing time gap between the process of studying various airborne systems interaction in anticipated and abnormal situations and the process of developing skills required for operating these systems. In the instruction devices at the phase of “pre-simulator” training similarity is not considered to be obligatory. It is considered that instruction effectiveness to a great extent is the function of the action image which the trainee uses rather than similarity of an instruction device. Graphic displays of up-to-date universal computers are widely used in the process of basic (theoretical) training of aviation specialists.

The increase in air traffic has resulted in the installation of a vast number of radar control systems. Technical progress not only has improved the performance of these systems but also has made them more complex. This has required to train new controllers and to provide continuous refresher training for operational controllers.
The use of simulators provides a solution of safety and efficiency problems. The simulators can be used to train future controllers in the civil aviation educational establishments and to prepare experienced controllers.
A simulator can be used to establish new flight procedures and controls in complete safety.
Nowadays airways are continuously congested, aircraft attain higher speeds and air traffic is characterized by growing complexity. This results in a steadily increasing workload on ATC controllers. They have to be provided with highly sophisticated technical aids and must be trained so perfectly that they can cope with any traffic situation.
Therefore training should be carried out under very realistic conditions.
Simulators are the ideal solution to this problem, since they allow trainees to meet any traffic situation without interference with actual operations. They can realistically simulate the flight of aircraft over any specified area. The trainee controllers are presented with primary and secondary video outputs representing the aircraft as seen from independent radar sites. Over the radiotelephony they talk to “pilots” who have the facility change position, height and speed in accordance with instructions from a trainee or as dictated by the exercise programme.

Alfred Nobel, the great Swedish inventor and industrialist, was a man of many contrasts. He was the son of a bankrupt, but became a millionaire; a scientist with a love of literature, an industrialist who managed to remain an idealist. He made a fortune but lived a simple life, and although cheerful in company he was often sad in private. A lover of mankind, he never had a wife or family to love him; a patriotic son of his native land, he died alone on foreign soil. He invented a new explosive, dynamite, to improve the peacetime industries of mining and road building, but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellow men. During his useful life he often felt he was useless. World-famous for his works he was never personally well known, for throughout his life he avoided publicity. "I do not see," he once said, "that I have deserved any fame and I have no taste for it," but since his death his name has brought fame and glory to others.
He was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833 but moved to Russia with his parents in 1842, where his father, Immanuel, made a strong position for himself in the engineering industry. Immanuel Nobel invented the landmine and made a lot of money from government orders for it during the Crimean War, but went bankrupt soon after. Most of the family returned to Sweden in 1859, and Alfred rejoined them in 1863, beginning his own study of explosives in his father's laboratory. He had never been to school or university but had studied privately and by the time he was twenty was a skilful chemist and excellent linguist, speaking Swedish, Russian, German, French and English. Like his father, Alfred Nobel was imaginative and inventive, but he had better luck in business and showed more financial sense. He was quick to see industrial possibilities for his scientific inventions and built up over 80 companies in 20 different countries. Indeed his greatness lay in his ability to combine the qualities of an original scientist with those of a talented industrialist.
But Nobel's main concern was never with making money or even making scientific discoveries. Seldom happy, he was always searching for a meaning to life, and from his youth had taken a serious interest in literature and philosophy. Perhaps because he could not find ordinary human love — he never married — he loved whole of mankind. He was always generous to the poor.
His greatest wish was to see an end to wars and peace between nations. He spent much time and money working for this cause until his death in Italy in 1896. His famous will, in which he left money for prizes for outstanding work in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature and Peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals.

The 555 seat, double deck Airbus A380 is the most ambitious civil aircraft program yet. When it enters service in March 2006, the A380 will be the world's largest airliner.
Airbus first began studies on a very large 500 seat airliner in the early 1990s. The European manufacturer saw developing a competitor and successor to the Boeing 747 as a strategic play to end Boeing's dominance of the very large airliner market and complete Airbus' product line-up.
Airbus began engineering development work on such an aircraft, then designated the A3XX, in .June 1994. Airbus studied numerous design configurations for the A3XX and gave serious consideration to a single deck aircraft which would have seated 12 abreast and twin vertical tails. However, Airbus settled upon a twin deck configuration, largely because of the significantly lighter structure required.
Key design aims include the ability to use existing airport infrastructure with little modifications to the airports, and direct operating costs per seat 15-20% less than those for the 747-400. With 49% more floor space and only 35% more seating than the previous largest aircraft, Airbus is ensuring wider seats and aisles for more passenger comfort. Using the most advanced technologies, the A380 is also designed to have 10-15% more range, lower fuel burn and emissions, and less noise.

The A380 would feature an advanced version of the Airbus common two crew cockpit, with pull-out keyboards, for the pilots, extensive use of composite materials such as GLARE, and four turbofan engines now under development.
Several A380 models are planned: the basic aircraft is the 555 seat A380-800 and high gross weight A380-800, with the longer range A380-800R planned. The A380-800F freighter will be able to carry a 150 tonne payload5 and is due to enter service in 2008. Future models will include the shortened, 480 seat A380-700, and the stretched, 656 seat, A380-900. (The -700, -800, and -900 designations were chosen to reflect that the A380 will enter service as a "fully developed aircraft" and that the basic models will not be soon replaced by more improved variants).
With orders and options from nine world-renowned customers (Air France, Emirates (the first customer), Federal Express, International Lease Finance Corporation, Lufthansa, Qantas, Qatar Airways, Singapore Airlines, and Virgin Atlantic), the Airbus A380 was officially launched on December 19, 2000, and production started on January 23, 2002. More airlines have placed orders since. The out of sequence A380 designation was chosen as the "8" represents the twin decks. The entry into commercial service, with Singapore Airlines, is scheduled for March 2006.
A380 final assembly will take place in Toulouse, France, with interior fitment in Hamburg, Germany. Major A380 assemblies will be transported to Toulouse by ship, barge and road.

Mid-air collisions of planes with birds often have fatal consequences. A bird hitting the engine or other important mechanism can have a serious effect on a plane’s ability to fly.
But some birds can be friends.
At St. Petersburg's Pulkovo airport those friends are the four falcons "hired" by the airport operator this summer to guard the runways from other birds.
When the falcons rise into the sky over the airport, they act as red traffic lights to all those seagulls, crows and ducks that dare to fly near the landing and take-off routes.
Every year Pulkovo airport has incidents in which planes landing or taking off ram into birds flying above the airfield," said Andrei Sokolov, head of Pulkovo's ornithology service. "Everything we tried previously to counter this produced little result."
The airplane industry estimates at least 350 people have been killed as a result of bird strikes since the dawn of aviation. The problem is growing worse because of increasing numbers of birds and planes.
The deadliest bird-plane collision was in 1960, when an Eastern Airlines jet struck a flock of starlings and crashed into Boston Harbor, killing 62 people.
In 1995, an Air Force plane crashed in Alaska, killing 24 crewmen, after geese were sucked into one of the plane's engines.
Most bird strikes occur at low altitude during the most dangerous time of any flight, the take-off or landing.
When the falcons arrived at Pulkovo from a nursery in the city of Voronezh in early July there was a noticeable difference.
The falcons don't chase birds that approach the airport; they simply frighten other birds off with their presence because all other birds are by instinct afraid of the birds of prey.
Similar falcon or hawk services operate at airports in other countries, including the U.S., Germany, Britain and Poland.
Falcons are being introduced to quite a few other Russian airports.

The Farnborough air show which was held in Britain on July 19-24.2004 proved to be an even greater success for the Russian defense industry companies than the Russian Expo Arms 2004, which was held in Nizhny Tagil a week earlier.
The largest contract of the show was a $1 billion deal signed between Sukhoi Civil Aircraft (a division of Sukhoi construction bureau) and Russia's Siberia Airlines. The deal is for a delivery of 50 Russian Regional Jet civil aircraft, which will begin in 2007. Each plane costs approximately $20 million, can seat from 60 to 95 passengers and is capable of flying up to 5,000 kilometers.
The planes are designed jointly by Russia's Sukhoi Civil Aircraft and Ilyushin Aircraft and U.S. Boeing Corporation. The aircraft will be powered by SM146 engines designed jointly by French SnecmaMoteurs and Russian research and production company Saturn. Saturn and Snecma have already announced an establishment of a joint venture that will oversee the production of these engines.
Among other achievements of the fair, which showed 180 items of military equipment and aircraft from Russia, was a great interest expressed by several countries towards a unique Ka-31 radar picket helicopter. The helicopter, produced by the Kamov construction bureau, is capable of carrying out both military and civil tasks and is an economy-priced surveillance machine.

In December 1995 a Boeing 757 flew into a mountainside near Cali, Columbia, killing 160 people. The inquiry revealed that the pilots were confused about their location, a situation that resulted from their misinterpretation of the air traffic controller’s clearance to Cali. Less than one year after this accident*, in November 1996, a Boeing 747 collided with an Ilyushin Il-76 near Delhi, India, killing everyone on board aircraft. The inquiry into this accident revealed that there had been some confusion among the IL-76 flight crew, most of whom were not proficient in English, concerning the level to which the aircraft had been cleared to descend.
These two accidents illustrate how the lack of proficiency in a common language and poor comprehension of appropriate phraseology by flight crews and air traffic controllers, can contribute to or result in an accident*.
ICAO has been involved in language training for a good number of years. During the 1980s, ICAO prepared standardized training guideline entitled Aviation English for Air Traffic Controllers. A recent development in this area is ICAO’s decision to review radiotelephony phraseology. This process will involve a comprehensive review of the existing provisions for air-ground and ground-ground voice communications in international civil aviation with the ultimate goal of developing enhanced communication procedures. New provisions would address both routine and non-routine communications, standardized English language testing requirement and procedures, and minimum skill-level requirements in the use of common English.
Safety may also be at risk when the language of the documentation on board cannot be understood by the local inspection authorities. A proposal by the ICAO Air Navigation Commission to amend several annexes by introducing a requirement to translate on board documents into English was adopted by the ICAO Council early 2001.
The same requirements are just essential for air-ground radio communications. The proper use of aeronautical phraseology is an important element in reducing the risk of misunderstandings, there by enhancing flight safety. regardless of the language used. The lack of knowledge of the English language can be a burden to pilots and air traffic controllers, and continues to be a problems in international operations.
There is a need, therefore, to establish requirements enhancing the minimum performance standards for radiotelephony phraseology and use of the English language by air traffic controllers and pilots engaged in international operations.

accident – авиационное происшествие (катастрофа)
incident – предпосылка к авиационному происшествию


Экологическое право — особое комплексное образование, представляющее собой совокупность правовых норм, регулирующих общественные отношения в сфере взаимодействия общества и природы.
В сегодняшней юридической науке существует два основных (с некоторыми вариациями) подхода к тому, какие общественные отношения в области взаимодействия общества и природы следует включать в предмет экологического права. Первый из них заключается в том, чтобы рассматривать в качестве предмета эколого-правового регулирования только общественные отношения в области охраны окружающей среды и обеспечения экологической безопасности. Второй — в том, чтобы помимо упомянутого включать в предмет экологического права общественные отношения в области использования природных ресурсов.

Принципы экологического права

Экологическое право и формируемое на его основе экологическое законодательство основывается на ряде принципов:

v Право на благоприятную окружающую среду (в России — одно из конституционных экологических прав, закреплено в ст. 42 Конституции РФ)

v Предотвращение вреда окружающей среде

v Охрана жизни и здоровья человека

v Демократизация экологического права

v Гуманность

v Обеспечение рационального использования природных ресурсов

v Устойчивое экологически обоснованное экономическое и социальное развитие

v Сохранение и защита экологического равновесия

v Свободный доступ к экологической информации (в России — одно из конституционных экологических прав, закреплено в ст. 42 Конституции РФ)

v Платность природопользования (в российском экологическом законодательстве сформулирован как «Платность природопользования, возмещение вреда окружающей среде», подробнее см. Принцип платности природопользования, возмещения вреда окружающей среде)

v Разрешительный порядок воздействия на окружающую среду

v Плата за негативное воздействие на окружающую среду

v Экосистемный подход к правовому регулированию охраны окружающей среды и природопользованию

v Ответственность за нарушение требований экологического законодательства

v и др.

Система экологического права России

В системе экологического права России принято выделять: общую, особенную и специальную части. Общая часть — положения, обслуживающие институты особенной части. Особенная часть — институты, имеющие целевое назначение в силу специфики объекта (предмета использования или охраны). Специальная часть — экология и космос, международное экологическое право, сравнительное экологическое право.

Общая часть содержит, в том числе, такие институты как:

v право собственности на природные объекты;

v право природопользования;

v государственное регулирование природопользования и охраны окружающей среды;

v эколого-правовая ответственность.

Особенная часть включает:

v Эколого-правовой режим природных объектов: землепользования, недропользования, водопользования, лесопользования, пользования животным миром;

v Эколого-правовая охрана (защита) отдельных компонентов природной среды: атмосферного воздуха, защита природных объектов, в том числе ООПТ;

v Эколого-правовой режим и охрана природно-антропогенных систем: эколого-правовой режим использования и охраны объектов с/х, эколого-правовой режим населённых пунктов, рекреационных и лечебно-оздоровительных зон; правовое регулирование обращения с отходами производства и потребления и т. д.

Специальная часть экологического права посвящается основным чертам международной правовой охраны окружающей природной среды, сравнительно-правовому анализу отечественного и зарубежного экологического права.[1]

Развитие общества за период своего существования воздействовало на окружающую природную среду, преобразовывало ее. Нежелательные последствия для природы, а также для человека потребовали развития определенного спектра знаний, направленных на изучение вопросов восстановления, сохранения, рационального использования и охраны окружающей природной среды, закономерностей обеспечения природных условий жизни человека и др. Международным сообществом были обозначены глобальные проблемы современности: экологический кризис, охрана окружающей среды.

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