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NATURE, TYPES AND DEVELOPMENT OF LABOUR MIGRATION
Effects and regulation of international labour migration
Features demand on foreign labour
The structure of the international labour market
Nature, types and development of labour migration
TOPIC 5. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION
Migration of human resources from one country to another is one of the most important classical forms of international economic relations; it is a part of the global economy.
International labour migration is a process of organized or spontaneous movement of the working population between countries, which is permanent or temporary, and caused by economic reasons. It is necessary to distinguish the migration of labour from the broader concept – as international migration, which can be carried out for political, ethnic, religious, military, family and other reasons.
The massive relocation of people from one country to another is associated mainly with finding work and ensuring family livelihood. With the migration of workers redistribution of "surplus" labour between parts of the world economy takes place. International migration consists of two interrelated processes - emigration, i.e. departure of a certain contingent of people from one country and immigration, which is their entry to another country. There is also the notion of re-emigration, which means the return of immigrants to their homeland.
Types of migration. According to the nature migration is divided into spontaneous, organized and enforced. Regarding the timing of migration, it is circular, seasonal, temporary and permanent. As for professional structure, labour migration of unskilled, skilled labour and highly qualified labour (scientific and technical personnel) is distinguished.
In historical terms, there are two types of migration processes: extensive and intensive.
In the development of international labour migration in the industrial era can be divided into several stages with the inherent types of migrant workers, social structure, resettlement movements and directions of migration flows.
The first stage of international migration covers the period of pre-monopoly capitalism (XVI-XIX c.). Industrial revolutions that took place in England, France, Germany and other European countries have fuelled an increase in capital accumulation and the growth of its organic structure, which led to the emergence of "surplus." This led to mass emigration from Europe and initiated the formation of the world labour market. The main consumers of the workforce in the XIX century were North America, Australia, New Zealand.
The second stage in the development of international migration was during the escalating of pre-monopoly capitalism into monopoly and took the 80-ies of the XIX century before the First World War. It was characterized by the increase in capital accumulation and increasing unevenness of this process in the framework of the world capitalist system, the high concentration of production and capital in the advanced imperialist countries, which led to an increased demand for additional labour. Labour exporting countries were in Eastern and Southern Europe.
The third phase covers the period between the two world wars. Its defining feature was a general decrease in the scale of international migration, primarily due to an increase in unemployment in most developed countries and the need to limit their arrival into foreign labour.
The fourth stage, which began after the Second World War, and is still characterized by: firstly, the growth of intracontinental migration between the European and African continents; secondly, a change in vocational and qualification structure of migrants; and thirdly, strengthening of state regulation of migration processes.
Global labour market is a system of relations between the countries on the harmonization of global supply and demand of labour, formation of conditions of labour, wages and social protection.
Formation of the international labour market occurs in two ways: firstly, through the migration of labour and capital, and secondly, through the gradual merging of national labour markets, so that legal, national, ethnic, cultural and other barriers between them are eliminated. The formation of the international labour market is the evidence that global integration processes occur not only in the economic and technological fields, but also increasingly encompass social and labour relations, which are now global.
The emergence and development of the international labour market is a result of increased international mobility of two main factors of production - capital and labour. Increased international capital mobility in social terms means it creates demand no labour now not only in the country, but also on foreign labour, which often has some advantages compared with the national one (more disciplined, less demanding on wages etc.).
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