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Changes in the Nominal System

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46.

45.

44.

43.

42.

41.

40.

18.

ME Consonants

First Lengthening

ME diphthongs

ME Vocalization

/j/ after the front vowels /e/, /æ/

/w/, /ɣ/ after the back vowels /a/, /o/

dæʒ /ɣ’/ à daʒ /j/ à day /daı/

læʒ /ɣ’/ à lay /laj/ à lay /laı/

weʒ /ɣ’/ à /j/ à way /weı/

āʒan /ɣ/ à owen /ɔ:uən/

draʒan /ɣ/ à drawen /drauən/

straw /straw/ à straw /strau/

66.The glide -u- developed from OE /w/ and also before /l/, /χ/. The consonants /l/, /χ/ were not vocalized:

Brāhte /χ/ àbraughte /brauχtə/

/aı/, /eı/, /au/, /ou/ and /ɔı/

/mb/ld/nd/rd/ng/

Hund /u/ à hound /u:/

Wild /ı/ à wild /i:/

Cildru /ı/ à children /ı/

Cēpte /e:/ à ME kepte /e/

69. Second Lengthening(12th-13th cc.)

/a/ à /a:/ talu à tale

/e/ à /ɛ:/ specan à spęken

/o/ à /ɔ:/ nosu à nose

 

/i/ à /e:/ wicu à week /e:/

/u/ à /o:/ duru à dore

 

The replacement of /i/u/ by /e:/o:/ was characteristic primarily of the Northern dialects, took place in the 2nd half of the 13th c.

70.-iʒ

71.The system of vowels in ME was no longer symmetrical

/k’/ à /t∫/

cild à child

benc à bench

cicen à chicken

cin à chin

/sk’/ à /∫/

scip à ship

scēāp à sheep /e:/

scīnan à shinen /i:/

/g:’/ à /dʒ/

hrycʒ à ridge

henʒe à hinge

73.In the initial clusters /hn-/, /hl-/, /hr-/, /hw-/ /h/ was lost in ME:

OE hnutu à ME nute à ModE nut

74.The initial /f/ was replaced by /s/ in /fn-/:

OE fnēōsan à ME fnēse à snese /sne:zə/ à ModE sneeze

75. Fricatives in OE – allophones

/f/ vs. /v/ in spelling <f>

/s/ vs. /z/ in spelling <s>

/Ө/ vs. /ð/ in spelling <þ/ð>

76. Fricatives in ME – phonemes

Veyne /′veinə/ (vein) vs. feine /′feinə/ (feign)

77.Offren /f:/ à/f/ (offer) vs. ofer /v/ (over)

78.fV- : vV-; sV- : zV-

Vocal vs. focal

79.Voicing of /f/ and /s/ inKentish

Synna vs. Kent. zenne Free vs. Kent. v



Silver vs. Kent. zelver Fæt vs. Kent. vat

 

80.Risen à rise /ri:zə/ à /raiz/

/i:/ à /ij/ à /eı/ à /æı/ à /aı/

19./u:/ à /uw/ à /ou/ à /aυ/

20.Table 1. The Great Vowel Shift

ME   NE Examples from ME Examples from NE
i:   mynd /i:/ time /ti:mə/ side /si:də/ mind /aı/ time /taım/ side /saıd/
e:   i: kepen /e:/ field /e:/ bee /be:/ seen /e:/ keep /i:/ field /i:/ be /bi:/ see /si:/
ɛ: e: i: sea /sɛ:/ (OE sǣ) beat /bɛ:t/ (OE bēātan) clean /klɛ:n/ (OE clǣne) sea /si:/     beat /bi:t/     clean /kli:n/
a: æı maken /a:/ name /a:/ sane /a:/ make /eı/ name /eı/ sane /eı/
ɔ: o:   oak /ɔ:k/ throat /Өrɔ:t/ soo /sɔ:/   oak /oυk/   throat /Өroυt/ so /soυ/
o:   u: moon(e) /o:/ do /o:/ (OE dōn) tool /o:/ moon /u:/ do /u:/   tool /u:/
u:   noun /u:/ now /u:/ about /u:/ (OE ābūtan) noun /naυn/ now /naυ/ about /ə'baυt/

 

21./a/ à /æ/

That /a/ à that /æ/

Man /a/ à man /æ/

22.Want /want/ à /wɒnt/

OE wæs à ME was /was/ à NE /wɒz/

23./e/ à /a/ before /r/

24.<ar>

25.clerk, Derby, sergeant

26.<ear>

Sterre à star

Herte à hart/heart

Were à war

Herthe à hearth

27./u/ à /∧/ = delabialisation

28./p/b/f/

Cut /u/ à cut /∧/

Comen /kumən/ à come /∧/

Lufu à love /u/ à love /∧/

¹But: put, pull, full, bull, etc

²But: puff, bucket, puck, etc

 

29./aı / à /eı/:

XIII c. dai /daı/ à XIV c. day /dæı/ à

XV c. /dæ:/ à XV – XVI cc. /dɛ:/ à /de:/ à XVIII c. /deı/

30.ME /eu/ (spelt <eu>, <ew>) developed through /iu/ to /ju:/. Scholars believe that this originally falling diphthong changed into a rising one:

/éu/ à /eú/,

then the initial element was reduced to /j/, the 2nd element was lengthened:

/iu/ or /eu/ à /íu/ à/iú/ à /ju:/

 

OE fēāwe à ME few /feú/ à /fiu/ à /fju:/

31.ME /au/ was contracted to /ɔ:/ in the XVI c., while the spelling <au>, <aw> remained unchanged (cause, dawn, autumn):

ME lawe /lauə/ à NE law /lɔ:/

 

32.Table 2. Vocalization of /r/

ME NE Comments
care /ka:rə/ /kɛər/ The /r/ element was only sounded if the next word began with a vowel
there /Өɛ:rə/ bear /bɛ:r/ /ðɛər/   /bɛər/ See above
fear /fɛ:r/ /fıər/ See above
steer /ste:r/ OE hēr /he:r/ à ME here /stıər/   /hıə/ See above
boar /bɔ:r/     OE māra à ME mōre /ɔ:/ /bɔə/ à /bɔ:r/ /mɔə/ à /ɔ:/ The diphthong /ɔə/ was not stable; was monophthongised quickly
poore /po:rə/ moor /mo:r/ /pυər/   /mυər/ The /r/ element was only sounded if the next word began with a vowel
tire /ti:r/ wire /wi:r/ /taıər/ /waıə/ If the neutral /ə/ produced by the vocalization of /r/ was preceded by a diphthong, it was added to the diphthong to join a sequence of sounds named ‘triphthong’
power /pu:ər/   OE ūre /u:rə/ à our /paυər/   /aυə/

 

33./ıə/, /ɛə/, /υə/

34.ME arm /arm/ à NE /a:m/

35./ə/

36.The new phonemes /ıə/, /ɛə/, /υə/, /ɔə/, biphonemic sequences /aıə/, /aυə/

37.The vocalization of /r/ after /e/, /u/ à /∧/, /ı/ resulted in the new phoneme /3:/:

fir, certain, her, curt, fur

But: if /r/ was followed by a vowel, /∧/ was preserved: hurry /h∧rı/

38.word/word/ à/wurd/ à /w3:d/

 

39.ME NE

rider(e) /'ri:dərə/ à /'ri:dər/ à /'raıdə/

(1) /a > æ > æ: > a:/ before /f, s, Ө, r/ and other consonants and clusters (ask, fast, grasp) at the end of words:

XV XVI-XVII XVIII

glass /æ/ /æ:/ /a:/

after /æ/ /æ:/ /'a:ftə/

(2) /a > au > a:/ before /l/ + /m, f, v/, in ENE /l/ was dropped:

 

XIV XV XVI

calm /kaulm/ /kaum/ /ka:m/

half /haulf/ /hauf/ /ha:f/

(3) /a > a:/ in the words of French origin before a nasal sonorant:

ME branch /brant∫/ à NE /bra:nt∫/

(4) /au > ɔ:/

XVI XVII

draw /drau/ /drɔ:/

 

(5) /a > au > ɔ:/ before /l/ + /k, t/ or before /l/ in the final position

XIV XV XVI-XVIII

hall /hal/ /haul/ /hɔ:l/

salt /salt/ /sault/ /sɔ:lt/

walke /walkə/ /waulk/ à /wauk/ à /wɔ:k/

 

(6) /ɔ > ou > au > ɔ:/ before /χ/ + /t/; b/n the sounds /ɔ/ and /χ/ developed the glide /u/ that resulted in the diphthong:

XIII XIV XV XVI

broghte brought brought brought

/'brɔχtə / /'brouχtə/ /braut/ /brɔ:t/

 

 

(7) /ɔ > ɔ:/ before /f, s, Ө, r/ at the end of words or before some other consonants (broth, cross):

XIV XVI

ford /fɔrd/ /fɔ:d/

for /fɔr/ /fɔ:/

47.Shortening before /Ө/d/t/k/

book /o:/à /u:/ à /υ/

deed /dɛ:d/ à /e:/ à /e/ (ModE dead)

48./ɛ:/ à /e/

Bread, fret, let, ate, sweat

49./e:/ à /e/

Friend

50./i:/ à /ı/

Breeches, sick

51./ɔ:/ à /ɒ/

Gone, hot, sorry, shone, sausage

52./sj, zj, tj, dj/ à /∫, ʒ, t∫, dʒ/

 

53./h/

ME hit à NE it

ME hope /hɔ:pə/ à NE hope /hoυp/

 

54.Initial /kn-/, /gn-/ à /n-/

ME knowen /kn-/ à NE know /noυ/

 

55.Final cluster /mb-/ à /m-/ (lamb, dumb, comb, bomb)

OE climban à ME climben /kl-/ à climb /klaım/

But:inthumb, limb, numb, crumb <b> was introduced

56.Final /mn-/ à /m-/: damn, hymn, column, autumn

 

57.In the middle of words:

/ln-/ à /l-/: OE myln à mill

/stl-/ à /sl-/: castle, bustle, bristle

/stn-/ à /sn-/: fasten, glisten

/stm-/ à /sm-/: Christmas

/ftn-/ à /fn-/ often, soften

58./s/f/Ө/ were voiced

NE possess /pə'zes/

observe /əb'z3:v/

ME /'fi∫əs/ à NE /'fi∫iz/ – the 2nd condition – a succeeding stressed vowel – was less important.

 

59./ŋ/

OE sinʒan /-ng/

ME singen /-ng/

NE sing /-ŋ/

60./d/ à /ð/ in the neighbourhood of /r/

Fader à father

Moder à mother

Gadere à gather

Weder à weather

Togedere à together

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