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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING




 

Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e.g. chemistry and physics), with mathematics, to the process of or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. In addition to producing useful materials, chemical engineering is also concerned with pioneering valuable new materials and techniques, an important form of research and development. A person employed in this field is called a chemical engineer.

Chemical engineering largely involves the design and maintenance of chemical processes for large-scale manufacture. Chemical engineers in this branch are usually employed under the title of process engineer. A related term with a wider definition is chemical technology. Chemical engineers design processes to ensure the most economical operation. This means that the entire production chain must be planned and controlled for costs. A chemical engineer can both simplify and complicate "showcase" reactions for an economic advantage.

Chemical engineering is applied in the manufacture of a wide variety of products. The chemical industry proper manufactures inorganic and organic industrial chemicals, ceramics, fuels and petrochemicals, agrochemicals (fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides), plastics and elastomers, oleochemicals, explosives, detergents and detergent products (soap, shampoo, cleaning fluids), fragrances and flavors, additives, dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals. Closely allied or overlapping disciplines include wood processing, food processing, environmental technology, and the engineering of petroleum, glass, paints and other coatings, inks, sealants and adhesives.

The individual processes used by chemical engineers (eg. distillation or filtration) are called unit operations and consist of chemical reactions, mass-, heat- and momentum- transfer operations. Unit operations are grouped together in various configurations for the purpose of chemical synthesis and/or chemical separation. Some processes are a combination of intertwined transport and separation unit operations, (e.g. reactive distillation).

 

3. Divide the text into some logical parts and entitle them.

4. Translate the following sentences into English using lexical material of the text:

1. Химическое машиностроение является важной отраслью инженерного искусства.

2. Инженеры-химики разрабатывают экономически выгодные процессы и аппараты.

3. Химическая промышленность производит органические и неорганические химические продукты.

4. Химическая индустрия тесно связана с деревообрабатывающей, пищевой, фармацевтической и другими видами промышленности.



5. Тепло- и массоперенос являются одними из основных процессов в химической технологии.

 

Text C

 

1. Pay attention to the following words and word combinations:

a vessel – сосуд

multiple aspects – многочисленные вопросы

yield of product – выпуск продукции

continuous reactors – реактор непрерывного действия

batch reactors – реактор периодического действия

transient state – переходный режим

process variables – технологические параметры

2. Read the text and be ready to say if the following statements are true or false. Use the following phrases:

 

It seems to be wrong (right) …

As far as I know …

Far from it. …

If I am not mistaken…

To my mind…

It’s not true to the fact.

 

1. Сhemical reactors are pipes for chemical reactions maintenance.

2. There are two main basic vessel types: a tank and a pipe.

3. Both types of reactors are run only at a transient state.

4. Batch reactor model, CSTR and PFR are main basic models used to estimate the most important process variables of different chemical reactors.

5. Catalytic reactors don´t require separate treatment.

 





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