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Exercise I. Suggest an appropriate lexical equivalent for the modal verb have (to) in the sentences below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian
Exercise II. Translate the sentences containing the modal verb must with different forms of the infinitive. Use one of the following (or some other) fitting Ukrainian equivalents for the purpose: повинен, певне, мабуть, треба, змушений, зобов'язаний, маю, etc.
Exercise I. Analyse each sentence first and offer a suitable Ukrainian equivalent (мусити, повинен, треба, маю etc.) for the modal verb must. Then translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
Exercise II. Offer the most fitting lexical equivalents for the modal verb may/mightvi'Ah the perfect infinitive in each sentence below and after that translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
Exercise I. Before translating the sentences into Ukrainian, state the meaning (supposition, probability, assumption, uncertainty, permission, etc.) expressed by the modal verb may/ might. Suggest the use of the stative можна or the adverb можливо (with or without a modal particle) where necessary.
Exercise IV. Find appropriate Ukrainian equivalents for the explicitly and implicitly expressed meanings of can/could in the sentences below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1. Thus, you can keep rubbing the wounds of the day a little sorer even while he is on his knees... (C.S. Lewis) 2. There are lots of fellows who would be delighted to have your chance, I can tell you. (Dreiser) 3. «It can't possibly be Walter.» (Maugham) 4. Vivian could see he was puzzled, not knowing what to make of it. (Hailey) 5. Love cannot be compelled. (Proverb) 6. «You can't wait in the dining-room, Miss.» (Mansfield) 7. She could not help giving ear to the sounds surrounding her. (Dreiser) 8. «I wish I could see him.» (Hemingway) 9. How weakened she was I had not been able to imagine until I saw her at the railway station ... (Buck) 10. You could see they were being careful as hell not to drink up the minimum too fast. (Salinger) 11. «Your sister? I can't believe it.» (Greene) 12. If we ignore this problem, we can easily find ourselves in an embarrassing situation. (D.K.Stevenson) 13. «I'm sorry, Granger. I wish I could help.» (Greene). 14. Can it really be true, then, that a non-commercial, non-profit public network is the largest. (D.K.Stevenson) 15. « ... you can't expect me to «believe a word you say.» (Galsworthy) 16. «I can't bear it.» (Christie)
17. She used to be able to understand. (Fitzgerald) 18. «We had an
23. «You can't live on air, you know.» (Christie) 24. Love and cough
Osborne who could not say boo to a goose.» (W.Thackeray) 26. A fog cannot be dispelled with a fan. (Proverbs) 27. He was not old, he could not have been more than forty. (Galsworthy)
2. The modal verb may/might with its lexical equivalents to be permitted I to be allowed has also some peculiarites of use and expression of meaning. The latter predetermines the use of its Ukrainian lexical equivalents. Thus, when the modal verb may/might expresses permission it is usually translated into Ukrainian as the stative можна. For example:
a) «Now may Ідо?» (Christie) «To що, можна мені йти?»
At the hospital they told me І «У шпиталі сказали, що
might wait.» (Ibid.) мені можна почекати.»
This meaning of may, as can be seen below, coincides with the meaning of the modal verb can in the indefinite personal or impersonal sentences as in One can count it/It could be counted on the fingers of one hand- це можна(можна було) порахувати на пальцях однієї руки.
b) The meanings of permission expressed by the modal verb
«May I speak now? « Тепер дозволяєте/можна
(Maugham) мені говорити?»
«May I offer you some fruit?» «Можна запропонувати
(E.Bates) вам/Не заперечуватимете
c) When the verb may/might expresses possibility (coinciding
This verb is therefore homonymous in its meaning incorporating in Ukrainian the meanings of can and may wnich can be seen from the following sentence:
«I think I may remind him of а «Я могтиму/матиму змогу.
time he prefers to forget.» думаю, пригадати йому той
d) When expressing assumption, probability, presumability, wish, advice, etc., the verb may and its past (or subjunctive) form might often acquires some additional modal meaning which is mostly rendered into Ukrainian with the help of different modal particles. The most frequently employed of them are б, ще/ще й, хай, etc.
«Let's wait a little more, she «Зачекаймо трохи, вона ще
might return in a couple of min- може (може ще й) прийде за
Бас каже, що ми могли б брати в пожителів готелю білизну прати (для прання). «Ми ніколи не одружимось.» «А може колись і одружимось,» відповіла Доротея тремтливим голосом.
є) When expressing wish, the subjunctive meaning of may is conveyed in Ukrainian either with the help of the particles хай or щоб, initiating the sentences:
May they live a long life. Хай їм щастить.
May damnation take him. Щоб він був проклятий./Хай
f) Some modal meanings (supposition, assumption, desire, etc.) expressed in English by may/mightare rendered into Ukrainian through modal particles and a peculiar logical word order:
«Допоможи й мені, Боже.» (Хай Бог помагає й мені.)
Не кажи гоп, доки не перескочиш (Скажеш гоп, як перескочиш).
«А його за це часом/згодом не покарають?»(А його не можуть потім покарати?)
g) The modal verb may is often used in the language of documents to express polite though severe warning:
A Member of the United Na- Держава - член Організації
tions which has persistently vio- Об'єднаних Націй, яка lated the Principles contained in постійно порушує зазначені в the present Charter may be ex- цьому Статуті принципи,
pelled from the organisation by the може бути виключена з ООН
General Assembly upon the rec- Генеральною Асамблеєю
ommendation of the Security згідно рекомендації Ради
Council. (Charter of the United Na- Безпеки. (Статут Організації
tions) Об'єднаних Націй).
h) The modal verb may/might followed by a perfect infinitive often expresses supposition, desire, uncertainty, probability, etc., of actions which might not have been carried out. When isolated from a contextual environment, the construction of may/might with the perfect infinitive may be treated as polysemantic and consequently offered different interpretatations in Ukrainian. Thus, the sentence «She may ha ve forgotten, you know; or got the evening mixed.» (Galsworthy) may have the following five faithful (from the translator's point of view) interpretetions/variants:
1) «Знаєте, вона мабуть забула чи сплутала вечір.»
2) «Вона певне забула або сплутала вечір.»
3) «Можливо, вона забула чи сплутала вечір.»
4) «Цілком імовірно, що вона забула чи сплутала вечір.»
5) «Знаєте, а може вона забула чи сплутала вечір.»
і) There appears still more uncertainty while conveying the meaning of may/mightwAh the negated perfect infinitive as in the sentence «The aircraft might not have been downed in the action.» (USA Today) The lexical ambiguity of the construction can be seen from the following possible variants of its interpretation in Ukrainian:
1) Літак може й не збито в тім бою.
2) Літак мабуть не збито в тім бою.
3) Цілком імовірно, що літак не був збитий у тому бою.
4) Навряд чи літак був збитий у тому бою.
5) Може літака й не збили в тому бою.
These meanings of may/might are naturally realized through the infinitive forming the content core of the modal predicate in the sentence.
In many sentences the modal verb might adds a subjunctive meaning to the predicate, which it is a part of, as in the following example:
Mrs.Gerhardt thought of all the Дженні Ґергардт перебрала
places to which she might apply, й усі інші місця, де можна було
1. «They may not like it.» 2. «She may and she may not prove to be a riddle to me.» (Dreiser) 3. Erik says that you may be coming to New York. (M.Wilson) 4. He may have to go to Monte Carlo with his father. (O.Wilde) 5. There may be a number of benefits. 6. Many non-Americans may be aware of the geographical size of the United States. 7. Other aspects of America may be a far more serious challenge to our experts. (D.K.Stevenson) 8. The hospital might receive money now or it might not. 9. «i suppose I might be difficult to live with. (Hailey) 10. Anything might happen. (G.Greene) 11. «We might dine together.» (Christie) 12. «She was afraid he might die before she had done so.» (H.James) 13. I thought you might be glad to learn of my good fortune. (O.Henry) 14. «Sometimes when Mr. de Winter is away and you feel lonely, you might like to come up to these rooms and sit here.» (Du Maurier) 15. You may know one of them to be a great warrior on the Enemy's side. (C.S.Lewis) 16. ... her heart might be lonely, but her lips continued to sing. 17. Yes, he might be called a successful man. (Dreiser) 18. You might see nothing in him. (O.Wilde) 19. «There's one thing that might work, might give us a better pointer. That's X-ray. If there's a tumor, X-ray might show it.» 20. It might be dangerous, if we get a disease carrier at the hospital. (Hailey)
21. This may be the reason of their refusal to join us. (J.F.Cooper)
22. «She might be a duchess.» 23. «I may be very stupid, but I can't make head or tail of what you're saying.» (Maugham) 24. «You might as well ask for a reflection without a mirror.» 25. «You may or may not be right on that point, Hastings.» (Christie) 26. «Perhaps I may keep the handkerchief. (C.S.Lewis) 27.1 told her she might fool me but she couldn't fool God. (Fitzgerald) 28. «... but you may as well get what you can out of it.» (Maugham) 29. A fool may ask more questions than a wise man can answer. (Proverb) 30. «If I may introduce myself, I am Mr.Chou's manager.» (Greene) 31. She might come this afternoon if she wants to.» 32. «They might all be wrecked by such fast driving.» (Dreiser).
1. They may not have said arfything about it. (H.Munro) 2. If they had been in the room then, she might have murdered them. (J.Cheever) 3. «That may not have occured to you that it would be rather a shock to a girl to find out that her husband had lived for ten years with another girl and had three children.» (Hemingway) 4. She may have had no particular feeling for him. 5. For all, we know they may have settled down into a most domestic couple. (Christie)
6. Miss Matfield might have been very sorry for him. (J.Priestley)
7. «Well, he might have been murdered by the Vietminh.» (Greene)
8. «He looked at Hilda; he might have been looking at a stranger.» (Bennett) 9. «You might have told me earlier - what you told me on Wednesday night.» 10. It may have been a healthy wind, but the effect on the nerves was evil. (Bennett) 11. Wolf too had disappeared, but he might have strayed away after a squirrel or a partridge. (W.Irving) 12. «You might have told us that half an hour ago.» (B.Shaw) 13. Of course, there were many things, I might have answered to this.» (Christie) 14. «If I had remained a rich man, I might have lost it for good and all.» 15. «And we might have been so happy.» (Maugham) 16. «Catherine, who might have said anything didn't say a word.» 17. Of course, she might have loved her for a minute. (Fitzgerald)
3. The modal verb must has also some peculiar features of its own. Borrowed by Ukrainian from German through Polish, this verb in English and Ukrainian expresses strong obligation, duty, necessity. In these meanings must has for its direct lexical equivalents the strongest Ukraininan modal verb of this same meaning мусити.
a) «Now I really must get back
you know.» (Murdoch) взятись за роботу. Знаєш,
We must eat, we must drink, скоро кінець семестру.»
мусимо завжди бути веселими.
b) Not without the long influence of the Russian language, which was for some centuries a dominant political factor in Ukraine, the modal verb мусити has been more often substituted by urban Ukrainians for its almost as strong semantically Ukrainian synonym повинен or for the modal stative треба. То convey the meaning of necessity, duty or obligation, expressed by the modal verb must, whose direct Ukrainian equivalent is still often avoided on the aforenamed grounds, present-day Ukrainians often resort to the additional use of the modal adverb обов'язково:
«I must sit down. This leg gets «Я мушу/повинен сісти,
tired.» (Greene) Щось поболює оця нога.»
«You must certainly send it «Ти повинен обов'язково вис-
(picture) next year to the тавити портрет наступного
Grosvenor.» (О. Wilde) року у павільйоні Ґросвенор.
The meaning of must in both English sentences above directly corresponds to our Ukrainian мусити, which is also proved by the use of the intensifying modal adverb обов'язково in the last sentence.
It may naturally not always be clear from an isolated sentence, which of the possible meanings the modal verb must expresses: that of the strongest (мусити) or those of the somewhat weaker ones (повинен, треба). Thus, from Martin Eden's words in the sentence below is not clear whether it is Ruth's duty, moral/ presumptive obligation or her necessity to address her father: «And you must tell your father for me.» (London) Hence, the translator may suggest three possible equivalents for this modal meaning of must in Ukrainian:
1) «І/А ти мусиш сказати це за мене батькові.» (duty, obligation)
2) «І/А ти повинна сказати це за мене батькові.» (necessity)
3) «І/А тобі треба самій сказати це за мене батькові.» (presumptive obligation)
с) The translator may sometimes choose the Ukrainian lexical equivalent of must under the influence of the traditionally established usage of a modal meaning in his native tongue. Thus, the meaning of necessity, obligation following from a prescription or rule, may often be expressed in Ukrainian through strict logical word order or via some other finite verbs with the intensifying adverb, as can be observed in the following sentences:
«I musn't take the money,» «Я ніколи не візьму цих гро-
said Carry, after they were settled шей,» - відповіла Керрі, коли вони
The Constitution of the US Конституцією США вста-
specifies that a nationwide cen- новлено, що державний пере-
«He must be as mad as a hatter!» exclaimed the Colonel. (Christie)
«That fellow must be made of steel. He's never tired.» (R.Warren)
«If I feel this way, my heart must be broken.» (Hemingway)
«I must apologize, Agnes, I'm very sorry...» (Coward)
«I thought you must be away.» (Maugham)
« What must you ha ve thought of me?» (Maugham)
«It must seem very funny to you.» (Galsworthy)
«Were the people looking at her? They must be.» (Mansfield)
«Він мабуть/не як з глузду зі'хав! - вигукнув полковник. (Та ж він просто з глузду з'їхав!)
«Той хлопець певне/як залізний. Він ніколи не стомлюється.»
«Якщо я почуваюсь так, це означає, що моє серце більш не витримує.»
«Прошу вибачити. Еґнес; мені дуже жаль.»/«Перепрошую. Еґнес, мені дуже прикро.»
«Я думала, що тебе нема вдома/що ти вже пішов.»
«Що ти мІЕ тільки подумати про мене?»
«Це може здатися /певне здається тобі/дуже дивним.»
Чи люди дивилися на неї? Мабуть,/Напевне, шо так.»
g) The Ukrainian modal verb мусити or повинен is to be used, however, when conveying the meaning of the English syntagmeme have got (to) with the indefinite infinitive having the function of the compound modal verbal predicate:
«I've got to stay sober.» «Я повинен/маю бути
«Doris, I've got something to «Доріс, я маю/повинен тобі
say to you.» (Hemingway) дещо сказати.»
h) The modal verb must when used with the perfect infinitive usually expresses actions supposed to have taken or not taken place but of which the speaker is mostly informed. The meaning of thus expressed action is usually rendered into Ukrainian with the help of the modal adverbs or particles можливо, очевидно, мабуть, напевно, певне:
«Не must have fallen off when «Зброєносець певне випав
we left the first bull.» (Hemingway) з машини, коли ми від їхали від
першого застреленого буй
words:«The man must have been «Цей чоловік уже мертвий
Some probable action expressed by the modal verb must with the negative particle not and the perfect infinitive shows that the action might have been carried out. Though other interpretations, i.e., expressions of the meaning are not excluded either:
She must not have followedthe Вона не повинна була
advice... (Austen) виконувати цю пораду...
Some other interpretations of this modal verb with the perfect infinitive construction may be quite opposite to that in the sentence above. Namely:
1) Навряд чи вона послухалася тієї поради.
2) Не може бути, щоб вона послухалася тієї поради.
3) їй не треба було слухатися тієї поради.
As in the similar case with may/might plus the perfect infinitive, there may be also other contextual meanings of must with the perfect or indefinite/continuous infinitive. These meanings can also be found in the compound modal predicates of sentences given in the exercises that follow.
1. «Accidents can happen to anybody, darling. You mustn't blame yourself.» (S.Sheldon) 2. «Only you must give me your clothes, too.» (A.Bierce) 3. «You mustn't stare at people when they pass,» continued mother. 4. To succeed one must do something - one must associate, at least seem to associate with those who were foremost in the world of appearences. (Dreiser) 5. «I'll telephone. They must see the faces of many people you've heard about.» (Fitzgerald) 6. This brings us to the last factor that must be kept in mind. 7. They must have local public support, because citizens vote directly on how much they want to pay for school taxes. (D.K.Stevenson) 8. «We must go as quickly as we can.» 9. In the meantime we must make the best of the situation. (C.Lewis) 10. «I must be left to myself for a while.» 11. «They mustn't take him into my house.» (Maugham) 12. «Adam, you must not leave the house.» 13. To be popular, one must be a mediocrity. 14. «I go on board to-night for India, and I must do my job first.» (Wilde) 15. «He must know that infatuation won't last.» 16. «He must be treated with infinite tact.» 17. «But you mustn't go with me, you wouldn't understand. I must show them to you myself.» (Christie) 18. «I must speak to you by such means as are within my reach.» (J.Austen) 19. «But according to your category I must be merely an acquaintance.» (Wilde) 20. «Still I must sleep.» (Hemingway) 21. An articled clerk must pass the necessary examinations held by the Law Society. (I.Tenson) 22. «I must acquit you of criminality.» (A.Bierce) 23. «But we mustn't talk here.» (Galsworthy)
1. «She must be in New York by now.» (M.Wilson) 2. They must be in a bad way truly. 3. «It must cost a good deal to live here, don't you think?» 4. «It must be nice to be famous,» said the girl softly. 5. The neighbourhood they lived in must be very poor. 6. Mrs. Gerhardt commented upon this repealing again and again: how good he must be or how large must be his heart. (Dreiser) 7. «Must be interesting?» he said. (Christie) 8. «We heard it from three people, so it must be true.» (Fitzgerald) 9. The boy must be forty by now.
(Galsworthy) 10. «You must be too hard,» he smiled back. (Hemingway) 11. Alcohol must help somewhat in fighting arteriosclerosis. (D.K.Stevenson) 12. «You must know, Gatsby.» 13. Some words of this conversation must have reached Wilson swaying in the office door... 14. She must have seen something of this expression for she turned abruptly away... 15. She must have broken her rule against drinking that night. 16. «You must have gone to church once.» 17.1 must have felt pretty weired at that time, because I could think of nothing else. 18. It (the car) must have killed her instantly. 19. He must have looked up at the unfamiliar sky. (Fitzgerald) 20. «He must have been in the river,» the woman said. (S.Barstow) 21. But even when she laughed she must have been one of the servants. (Maugham) 22. These must have been expensive cigars. (J.Priestley) 23. But you must have seen pictures of her. (Christie) 24. «You must have got mixed up in something in Chicago.» (Hemingway) 25. What he saw in that room must have frightened him terribly. (J.Kierzek) 26. «I have read your feelings, and I think you must have penetrated mine». (J.Austen)
4. The modal verb have (to) is of common lexical nature in English and Ukrainian, where its meaning in all substyles corresponds to the verb мати as in the following examples:
a) «Oh, I have to tell you «О, мамо, я маю вам щось
something, mamma.» (Dreiser) сказати/розповісти.»
«Don't forget, we have to pay «Пам'ятай, що ми маємо
the library. (Hemingway) платити бібліотеці.»
b) Depending on the lexical meaning of the infinitive that forms the compound modal predicate with it, the modal verb have (to) may often become close to that of the Ukrainian modal verbs повинен, мусити, to the stative треба or to the modal adverb потрібної необхідно:
«You know we, poor artists, «Бачите, нам, бідним худож-
have to show ourselves in soci- никам, треба/необхіднопоказу-
«Ми маємо/повинні робити
« We have to do everything we все, що можемо.»
« You'II have to pull harder деться взавтра попрацювати/ than this tomorrow. (Hemingway) взятись краще, ніж оце зараз.»
с) In some contextual environment, however, the meaning of have to may be very close if not equivalent to must (мусити/повинен):
«I have to leave you here.»
«I have to tell you I find your ти/залишити тебе тут.»
6) The modal meaning of the verb have to may be predetermined by the peculiarity of usage and singularity of expressing the same modal meaning in the source language and in the target language, which may sometimes coincide as in the sentence below:
«And what have we to do with «А що нам/маємо робити з
the lives of those who toil for us?» життями тих, котрі, як чорні
As can be seen, translation of the modal verb have (to) may be influenced by various factors which should be taken into consideration while choosing its lexical equivalent in Ukrainian.
1. «You don't have to do it.» 2. «You have to go back to school.» (Salinger) 3. «If you gain anything, you will have to fight for it.» 4. «Times are hard ... I have my family to keep.» 5. «You will have to wait until you hear from me again.» (Dreiser) 6. «We've got to go to bed.» 7. «She's not to know about it.» (Fitzgerald) 8. «Hadn't we better put a little bit of stick or something between each word.?» (Kipling) 9. «Doris, I've got something to say to you.»10. «He'd have nothing more to do with the woman and Macomber would get over that too.» (Hemingway) 11. «... under my oath I've got to try to catch the criminal.» (Saroyan) 12. «Shan't we have to risk it?» (C.S.Lewis) 13. «Well, we've got a little business to talk about,» said Boom confidently. (W.Jacobs) 14. «All I had to look forward was doing the same old thing day after day.» (Maugham) 15. «How long did you have to stay there?» (F.Cooper) 16. «You don't have to be an alcoholic to hurt your baby; you just have to be drinking enough while pregnant.» (Alcohol, the Legal Drug) 17. «I must write stories and they have to be stories that will sell.» (Salinger) 18. «Bob has to be on duty at the
hospital at nine o'clock.» (F.King) 19. «You have to take it .» (Dreiser) 20. «She and Diana, have a lot to arrange together. » 21. «... you've still got to take it easy.» (F.King)
5. Together with the common in both languages modal verbs of generally isomorphic nature there is one that is conspicuous for its usage. This is the synonymous to the modal verb have to English modal verb to be (to) which has some meanings that are realized depending on the form and lexical meaning of the infinitive following it. This modal verb may express obligation or necessity resulting from an arrangement or from a prearranged agreement/plan. The Ukrainian equivalents for these meanings of to be (to) are usually the modal verbs мати/and even повинен, мусити:
a) «Remember, Joe, you are «He забувай, Джо, що ти
to run the laundry according to маєш керувати пральнею
According to the agreement Згідно угоди, комірне
rent was to be paid strictly in ad- (квартплатня) повинне було
When to be (to) expresses the meaning of inevitability of some action or event, it is translated into Ukrainian as the modal verb мати.
«If the thing was to happen, it «Якщо вже це мало скоїтись.
was to happen in this way ...» то воно мало скоїтись саме
The modal verb to be (to)may also express a meaning corresponding to the Ukrainian stative треба:
«It was to be expected,» Mrs. «Цього і треба було чекати».
Mors said gently. (London) - стиха промовила пані Морз.
с) Sometimes the modal meaning of the verb to be (to)is faithfully conveyed by means of the Ukrainian infinitival predicate of the sentence and the strictly logical position of the parts of the sentence, as in the rhetorical questions below:
What am I to do now? Що мені тепер робити?
How was President Kravchuk Як президентові Кравчуку
to have won the re-election? було перемогти на повторних
d) When expressing order or instruction (usually in reported speech) the modal verb to be (to)is translated into Ukrainian either with the help of the modal verbs бути повинним/мати, or with the help of a subordinate clause respectively. For example:
«You are to stay in bed until «Ви не повинні вставати.
you are allowed to get up.» (Du доки лікар не дозволить» (доки
«I'm going to tell him he's not «Я йомускажу, щоб він більш
to come to the house any more.» не приходив»/шоб його ноги не
є) When expressing possibility, the modal verb to be (to)is translated with the help of the modal verbs можна, мати, or with the help of the modal word можливо:
There is a good training to be Там можна пройти гарну
had there. (Dreiser) практику/вишкіл.
... in the basement of the ... у підвальному приміщенні
Diggby Avenue, Congregational на Діґбі Авеню мали відбутися Church, there was to be held а збори конґреґаційної церкви з social with refreshments. (Ibid.) частуванням.
f) When expressing an assumptive or suggested possibility,
«I am to have the priviledge of «Мені випадає щаслива
sitting next to you.» (Maugham) нагода сидіти поруч з вами. »/Я
матиму приємність посидіти поруч з вами.»
g) Somewhat clearer is the reference to future, however, when
If anything were to happen, it Якби що-небудь мало
would cost me my place all right. скоїтися/(скоїлося). я неодмінно
If he were to come, he would Якби він мав приїхати, він
certainly have arrived already, би вже напевне приїхав/він був
There may also be other contextual modal meanings of the verb to be (to)in English, which can be ascertained from the sentences in the given exercise below.
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