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Exercise I. Translating the sentences into Ukrainian state the meaning of the modal verb to be to in each of them

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1. «Is he to take it that everything is O.K.?» (Salinger) 2.1 was to catch them and hand them over to her. (C.Lewis) 3. «There is only one thing to be done.» (Cronin) 4. We made a list of things to be taken. (J.K.Jerome) 5. «If I were to marry Guilliandum, the Church would never stand for it.» (J.Fowles) 6. But all his meals were to be taken outside his working hours and he was to report promptly in uniform for line-up and inspection by his superior... 7. This daughter of poverty, who was now to fetch and carry the laundry of this citizen, was a creature of a mellowness of temperament. 8. They were to be seen upon the principal streets of Kansas City flitting to and fro like flies. 9.... he was to be held back by any suggestion which his mother could now make. 10. She could give him seventy five dollars cash in hand, the other forty to be paid in one week's time. 11. Anything to be as carefully concealed as possible. 12. ...they were to be turned over to Clyde with the suggestion that he try them. 13. But Clyde, in spite of this honest and well-meant condition, was not to be dissuaded. 14.... there had been a development which was to be effected by this very decision on the part of the Griffiths. 15. And yet, if the problem were on this account to be shifted to him, how would he make out? 16. From this Clyde wondered how long he was to be left in that dim world below the stairs. 17.... there was to be staged on June twentieth the annual intercity automobiling floral parade and contest, which this year was to be held in Lycurgus and which was the last local social affair of any consequence. 18. Plainly, it was an event to be admitted to the presence of such magnificence. (Dreiser) 19. The polling stations were to have been closed at 8 p.m. (News from Ukraine)

6. The modal verb ought to like the modal verb should ex­presses moral obligation, presupposition, desirability, advisability and some other meanings. Its meaning in Ukrainian is mostly very close

to that of the stative треба or modal verb слід, the modal word потрібно. which can be seen from the following sentences:

«Oh, I've forgotten, I ought to have asked Iris about her cook.» (F.King) He ought never to have given it (the flute) up. (Galswothy) «Every man ought to be mar­ried.» (Hemingway)

«О, а я й забув: я ж мав/ повинен був запитати Айріс про її кухарку.»

Йому нізащо не треба було кидати гру (на флейті).

«Кожному чоловікові слід/ потрібно одружуватись.»

As can be understood from the content of the third sentence, the meaning of ought to may equally be expressed through the modal word необхідно: Кожному чоловікові необхідно or потрібно одружуватись.

b) The content of the sentence may often display a still stronger meaning of the modal verb ought to. which corresponds to that of the modal verbs повинен, мати, мусити:

« We're going to Greece...» «Ми їдемо до Греції.» «Зараз

«...It ought to be lovely at this time там мусить/повинно бути

of year.» (Maugham) « You ought to know that you can't have to steal.» (J.Cheever)

прекрасно в цю пору року»

«Ти повинен/мусиш знати, що красти не можна.»

с) Apart from the above-mentioned, the modal verb ought to may acquire some other meanings in different contextual environments. These may be as follows:

1) that of the assumptive duty or obligation, necessity, as­sumption, which is expressed in Ukrainian through the particles 6/ би, щобand the corresponding infinitive of the verbal predicate or subordinate clause:

«You ought to be working now.» (J.Joyce) By this time it ought to have been over. (Christie) I don't think she ought to be in that place alone. (Galsworthy)

«Ти ж повинен би працювати/ мав би бути на роботі зараз.»

На цей час/під цю пору все мало б давно вже скінчитися.

Не думаю (навряд чи), щоб вона була там сама.

2) The conditional subjunctive meaning expressed through the particles б/би and the notional finite verb without the subordinate con­junctions якби or якщо б, as in the following examples:

«You ought to have seen her «Бачили б ви його в її


tie he had on.» (Dreiser) краватці»Л~реба було бачити

«God. You ought to hear «Боже. Чула б ти, що про

Walter on the subject of you.» тебе каже/говорить Волтер.» (Fitzgerald)

3) When ought to expresses desire or affirmation, assump­
tion, its modal meaning is rendered into Ukrainian through the modal
adverbs and modal words певне, напевне, мабуть:

«She ought to have been «Вона мабуть/певне no-
about spending her думує вже про те, як потра-
money on theatres already ...» тити своїгрошіна театр"(на
(Dreiser) відвідування вистав).

«She's said to be very beauti- «Люди, які напевне/мабуть-

ful by people who ought to knowтаки знаються на вроді, кажуть,

(Fitzgerald) що вона дуже вродлива.»

4) The meaning of the modal verb ought to may sometimes be
rendered into Ukrainian through peculiar word forms (mood forms) of
the verbal predicate as in the sentence below:

«If you're a poor driver, you «Якщо ти поганий водій/
oughtn't to try driving at night.» шофер, то не їздь (не треба
(Fitzgerald) їздити/уникай їзди) вночі.»

Some other contextual realizations of the modal meanings per­tained to ought to are not excluded either, which can be seen from the English sentences of the exercise that follows.

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