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B. Translate the articles of The Charter of the United Na­tions below. State the way in which the meaning of the modal verb shall is to be expressed in Ukrainian



1. Expand on the nature of modality and the main means of expressing it in English and Ukrainian.

2. Enumerate the modal verbs common in both languages and define their possible lexical and contextual equivalents in English and Ukrainian.

3. Comment on the meanings expressed by the construc­tions of the modal verbs can, may, must plus the perfect infinitive.

4. Enumerate the English modal verbs which have not always direct modal verb equivalents in Ukrainian. In which speech styles are they mostly used?

5. Identify the cases when the modal verbs mustand may/ might express assumption, presumability, probability, suggestion, etc. and give their semantic equivalents in Ukrainian.

6. Differentiate the modal verbs ought toand should in Eng­lish and their semantic equivalents in Ukrainian.

7. Differentiate the modal verbs needand dare/daresay, their double nature and ways of expressing their meaning in Ukrainian.

8. Explain the peculiar nature of the modal verbs shall, will and would in English and ways and means of expressing their func­tions and lexical meanings in Ukrainian.

Exercise I. Identify the meanings of the modal verb shall and translate the following sentences containing it into Ukrain­ian:

A. 1. «Shall we all go in my car?» suggested Gatsby. 2. '"Well, shall I help myself?» Tom demanded. (Fitzgerald) 3. «Shall I ask the man here to cut you with his rope?» (Kipling) 4. «They shall be called the Malazy - the lazy people.» 5. By their fruits ye shall know them. (Saying) 6. If the blind leads the blind, both shall fall into the ditch. (Saying) 7. «Father», she cried, «father, are you ill? Shall I ring?» (Leacock) 8. «Since you have acted so handsomely, you shall have no cause to complain of me: you shall entertain as much as you please.» (B.Shaw) 9. «Shall I tell you about it?» (M.Spark) 10. «I'll take care that you shall be well off when I'm gone.» (Ibid.) 11. «Shall we go away?» (B.Shaw) 12. "You certainly shall not go till you have


told me all," I said. (Bronte) 13. «Shall we take anything to drink?» (Fitzgerald) 14. «Shall I give you some coffee?» (Galsworthy) 15. «I will sing the Baby a song that shall keep him asleep for an hour.» 16. «I will throw these five things at you, wherever I see you, and so shall all proper Men do after me.» 17. «Hence, forward I will go out seven times a day and the waters shall never be still." (Kipling) 18. "It won't take you long, and then you shall have your tea." (du Maurier)

Article 9.1. Each Member shall have no more than five repre­sentatives in the General Assembly. Each Member of the General Assembly shall have one vote. 2. Decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting. Article 21. The General Assembly shall adopt its own rules of procedure. It shall elect its President for each session. Article 22. The General Assembly may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.

Competence of the Court

Article 32.1. Each member of the Court shall receive an annual salary. 2. The President shall receive a special annual allowance. 3. The Vice-President shall receive a special allowance for every day on which he acts as President. 4. The salary of the Registrar shall be fixed by the General Assembly on the proposal of the Court. 5. The official languages of the Court shall be French and English.

Article 34. 1. Only states may be parties in cases before the Court.

Article 15.1. The General Assembly shall receive and consider annual and special reports from the Security Council; these reports shall include an account of the measures that the Security Council has decided upon or taken to maintain international peace and security. 2. The General Assembly shall receive and consider reports from the other organs of the United Nations.

Article 16. The General Assembly shall perform such functions with respect to the international trusteeship system as are assigned to it in Chapters XII and XIII, including the approval of the trusteeship agreements for areas not designated as strategic.

Article 17. 1. The General Assembly shall consider and ap­prove the budget of the Organization. 2. The expenses of the Organi-

zation shall be borne by the Members as apportioned by the General Assembly. 3. The General Assembly shall consider and approve any financial and budgetary arrangements with specialized agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall examine the administrative budgets of such specialized agencies with a view to making recommendations to the agencies concerned.

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