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Look through the text and name the facts which are new to you





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B) Say what you have learnt from the text about international banks.

A) Open the brackets putting the verbs in the correct form.

 

Basic principles of commercial banking best (to demonstrate) in the case of international banks. These institutions are the dominant traders in the Euromarkets and the foreign exchange markets and are very active in some domestic credit and bond markets. The Eurocurrency market (to consist) of banks, commonly referred to as "Eurobanks", which accept deposits and ((to lend) in foreign currencies. Most of the banks active in the Eurocurrency market also (to trade) extensively in the foreign exchange markets. The Eurobanks concerned include some of the largest banks in the world.

Eurobanks are typically London branches of these large international banks and primarily (to engage) in intermediation in short-term deposits denominated in currencies other than Sterling. Eurosterling dealing (to take) place outside of British jurisdiction. The large American and Japanese banks (to dominate) the Eurocurrency business, but major British banks also (to be) very active throughout the 1980's. Some of the large world commercial banks also (to form) "consortium" banks as special purpose joint ventures set up to deal in the Eurocurrency market. From the parent bank's point of view, the Eurobank branch or consortium (to be) able to operate outside the range of domestic banking regulations and therefore (to achieve) considerable cost economies due to the absence of reserve requirements and other regulatory costs. International cooperation on capital adequacy standards (to begin) to erode this privileged position. As a result, the global financial intermediation activities of international banks are now increasingly subject to some form of international control. A further advantage of Eurobanking (to stem) from the scale of borrowing and lending in this market. This means that major economies of scale can be realized by banks. These factors explain why Eurocurrency deposit and lending rates fall within the equivalent domestic values. Thus the Eurosterling loan rate (to be) lower than the British domestic bank loan rate and the Eurosterling deposit rate (to be) higher than the British deposit rate. The resulting very narrow profit margin in the Eurocurrency market is only possible due to the transaction and regulatory cost savings achievable in this market compared with equivalent domestic markets.



 

 

A crucial aspect of the development of a country’s domestic banking system and financial markets is the payment system, which is used by enterprises and individuals to discharge obligations incurred in a market economy. Payment systems are the foundations on which stable and efficient economy can be built. The principal objective of the payments system is to support the country’s economy. Moreover, the payment system is one of the first paces where financial difficulty fail to meet their payment obligations.

The payment system is the apparatus through which obligations resulting from economic activity are discharged by transfers of monetary value. Obligations can be discharged through the payment system using cash or deposits held in banks. In the case of payments made using bank deposits, it is necessary to use some form of payment instrument, such as a paper or electronic credit or debit payment, to move funds. For a debit payment, such as a check, the receiver of money (the payee) initiates an instruction to the bank holding the deposit of the sender of money (the payer), ordering the paying bank to pay. This is done by representing a check, which must be honoured by the payer, who is the customer of the paying bank, once the check is authenticated.

For a credit payment, such as a payment order, the party making the payment initiates an instruction to his bank to pay money to the intended receiver by initiating a payment order.

When using deposit money in banks to make payment, the process for discharging an obligation can be divided into two parts. The first part is clearing, the process by which payment information is conveyed between the payer and payee and between the banks holding the accounts of the two parties to the transactions. Once a payment is initiated, clearing should take place quickly and reliably in order to minimize financial risk as funds are being transferred. Commercial banks play an important role as intermediaries in the clearing process because they provide account services to the public.

The second part of the process for discharging an obligation using deposit money in banks is settlement in which the actual transfer of monetary value associated with the payments is made. Banks play a role in settlement because it is through the accounts held on their books that the transfer of monetary value occurs. Commercial banks settle for the non-bank public and sometimes for other banks with which they have correspondent account relationships.

The central bank, where all commercial banks hold accounts, is often used by commercial banks as the settlement entity for interbank transfers.

Clearing and settling payments can be complex. Therefore, an efficient payment system requires a high degree of cooperation and coordination among banks, which usually occurs through a clearing house. A clearing house is a legal entity, owned and controlled jointly by its member banks. Its primary function is to coordinate the exchange and settlement of payments among its members.

The activities of the clearing house might be limited simply to coordinating the physical exchange of payments among banks, for example, by organizing efficient and speedy transportation of payment documents. Clearing houses may also provide processing services to their members, in which case they may operate fairly large data processing and data communications systems to process payment instructions. Payment systems face a number of risks, like liquidity risk, credit risk, cross-currency settlement risk and systemic risk.



Thus confidence in a payment system is crucial in a market oriented economy. In the long term each country is likely to need a safe and efficient payments system for households; legislation governing payments; and a sound financial sector, including financially and operationally sound banks.

Words you may need:

crucial – вирішальний, критичний

to discharge obligations – виконувати зобов’язання

payee – одержувач платежу

to initiate an instruction – давати вказівку

payer – платник

to honour the check – сплатити чек

payment order – платіжне доручення

convey – передавати

correspondent account – кореспондентський рахунок

systemic – системний

žTESTS

I. Choose the word which best completes each sentence:

1.A bank will sometimes give you a loan if someone is prepared to stand as your guarantor, agreeing to _______ the loan if you fail to do so.

a) repay;

b) refinance;

c) recollect.

 

2.Persons are described as ________ when they cannot meet their liabilities.

a) dishonest;

b) disreputable;

c) bankrupt.

3. Before you _______ a cheque for more than you have on your account you must apply for an overdraft.

a) withdraw;

b) draw;

c) sign.

 

4.When the payee signs on the back of a cheque it is described as an ________ .

a) signature;

b) endorsement;

c) guarantee.

 

5. The banker is expected to treat any information he has in regard to his customer’s affairs as confidential.

a) domestic;

b) private;

c) financial.

 

II.Match what statements are true and what are false. Results write to the table:

1.Commercial banks act as financial intermediaries.

2.Banks mediate between borrowers and savers to achieve a profit.

3.Commercial banks make their profit by paying a higher rate of interest for the money they lend.

4.Offshore banking being a part of a country’s banking business is not developing.

5.Banks write “insurance” type contracts with deposits and borrowers.

Table

 
True          
False          


III. Which is correct:

1.Доходи (державні):

a) benefits;

b) revenues;

c) yield;

d) gain.

 

2.Investment bank – це установа:

а) яка надає кошти для інвестицій;

б) яка перепродає акції;

в) куди вкадаються інвестиції.

 

3. One basis point equals:

a) 0.1%;

b) 1%;

c) 0.01%;

d) 1.

 

4.Знецінення грошей на біржі:

a) depreciation;

b) denunciation;

c) denomination;

d) devaluation.

ì Unit 6

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